Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Human Settlements Question Answer NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part A – Fundamentals of Human Geography Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Human Settlements Question Answer
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Which one of the following forms of settlement develops along either side of roads, rivers or canals?
Which one of the following types of economic activities dominates in all rural settlement?
In which of the following regions has the oldest well-documented urban settlement found?
(a) Huang He Valley
(b) Indus Valley
(c) Nile Valley
(b) Indus Valley
How many of the following cities in India have attained the million status at the beginning of 2006?
Sufficiency of which type of resources can help to create adequate social infrastructure catering to the needs of the large population in the developing countries?
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
How would you define a settlement?
A human settlement is defined as a place inhabited more or less permanently. It may include temporary camps of hunters or herders and also the permanent settlements called villages, towns, cities, large agglomeration.
Distinguish between site and situation.
What are the bases of classifying settlements?
Settlements can be classified on basis of residence and main occupation into rural and urban. Settlements may also be classified on bases of their shape, pattern types into Compact or Nucleated settlements and Dispersed settlements.
How would you justify the study of human settlements in human geography?
The study of human settlements is basic to human geography because the form of settlement in any particular region reflects human relationship with the environment. Human settlement in any particular area reflects human land association and is affected by physical, economic and social factors. Availability of water, type of soil, topography, availability of minerals etc. play an important role in development of any settlement. As it reflects and is deeply affected by the inter-relation between human and physical world, it becomes an important part of human geography.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:
What are rural and urban settlements? Mention their characteristics.
Rural settlement: These settlements are those which have population of less than 5000 people and density of less than 400 persons and more than 75% people are engaged in primary activities.
- Most of the people are engaged in primary activities. They directly depend on land resources for their livelihood.
- The population of villages is less and they have less density of people.
- They depend on urban areas for obtaining manufactured consumer goods whereas they are providers for all primary products.
- They lack in both economic and social infrastructure.
Urban settlement: The census of India defines urban settlement as “All places which have municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee and have a minimum population of 5000 persons, at least 75 per cent of male workers are engaged in non-agricultural pursuits and a density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometers are urban.
- The population as well as population density of urban areas is veiy high.
- Most of the people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities.
- They depend on rural areas for raw material and primary products. They are supplier of manufactured and consumer goods.
- They have advanced social and economic infrastructure.
Discuss the problems associated with urban settlements in developing countries.
People flock to cities to avail of employment opportunities and civic amenities. Since most cities in developing countries are unplanned, it creates severe congestion. Shortage of housing, vertical expansion and growth of slums are characteristic features of modern cities of developing countries. In many cities an increasing proportion of the population lives in substandard housing, e.g. slums and squatter settlements.
Economic Problems: The decreasing employment opportunities in the rural as well as smaller urban areas of the developing countries consistently push the population to the urban areas. The enormous migrant population generates a pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour force, which is already saturated in urban areas. This increases the pressure on existing infrastructure of cities.
Social-cultural Problems: Cities in the developing countries suffer from several social ills. Insufficient financial resources fail to create adequate social infrastructure catering to the basic needs of the huge population. The available educational and health facilities remain beyond the reach of the urban poor. Lack of employment and education tends to aggravate the crime rates. Male selective migration to the urban areas distorts the sex ratio in these cities. Also many people flocking to these areas are unable to adjust to changed conditions, hence face social isolation, which leads them to depression and also to crimes like alcoholism and drug abuse. Male selective migration leads to imbalance in sex ratio.
Environmental Problems: The large urban population in developing countries not only uses but also disposes off a huge quantity of water and all types of waste materials. Many cities of the developing countries even find it extremely difficult to provide the minimum required quantity of potable water and water for domestic and industrial uses. Massive use of traditional fuel in the domestic as well as the industrial sector severely pollutes the air. Huge concrete structures erected to accommodate the population and economic play a very conducive role to create heat islands.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Give three examples of settlements.
A village, a town and a city.
Name two main types of settlements.
Rural and Urban.
Upto which population, is a settlement called rural ?
Upto 5000 persons.
What is the main occupation of people in rural settlements ?
Where is linear pattern of settlement found ?
What should be the density of population in urban settlements ?
400 persons per sq km.
Give an example of an administrative town.
How many million towns are there in the world ?
What is the average total population of a mega city ?
Which is the largest populated town of the world ?
Where is a sub-urban area ?
An area around an urban town.
What are wet settlements ?
Water based settlements around rivers, lakes, springs, etc.
Where are dry point settlements ?
Settlements on river terraces and levees are called dry point settlements.
Where are linear pattern of villages found? (C.B.S.E. 2017)
(i) along a road
(ii) along a railway line
(iii) along a river
(iv) along a canal
(v) along a levee.
Along which water bodies, circular pattern on of villages develop.
Which form of rural settlement pattern develops along roads railway lines, rivers and canals in the world? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
(i) Around Lakes
(ii) Around Tanks.
Where do T-shaped settlements develop ?
At Tri-Junctions of roads (T).
Which town was the first urban settlement to reach a population of one million?
London in 1810.
How much population of world lives in urban areas ?
Where is the population of an urban area in India ?
Name any four places of religious pilgrimage.
Jerusalem, Macca, Puri and Varanasi.
Where is Addis Ababa located ? When was it established ?
Capital of Ethiopia. It was established in 1878.
Where is Canberra located ?
Canberra is the capital of Australia established in 1912.
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is the basic difference between towns and villages ?
On the basis of population size, a village is different from a town. But the basic difference between towns and villages is that in towns the main occupation of the people is related to secondary and tertiary sectors, while in villages, most of the people are engaged in primary occupations.
What are suburbs ? Why do people shift to suburbs ?
Smaller towns around the congested towns are called suburbs. People move away from the congested area to cleaner areas outside the city in search of a better quality of living.
Describe the building materials used for dwellings in different areas.
(i) In Loess areas of China, cave dwellings were important.
(ii) In Africa, Savanna mud bricks were used as building material.
(iii) In polar regions, Eskimos used ice blocks to construct Igloos.
What are canal colonies ? Give one example.
Planned settlements constructed by government by providing shelter water and infrastructure are called canal colonies built along the banks of canals. In India Indira Gandhi Canal Command area has such colonies.
What factors influence the pattern of Rural settlements ?
- The way houses are sited in relation to each other.
- The site of the villages.
- The surrounding topography.
- The terrain.
- Shape and size of a village.
State the types of villages on the basis of shapes.
Which are the two major types of settlements according to their shape found in the world? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
- Double villages
- Cross-shaped villages.
Name the different functions of towns.
The earliest towns were centres of administration, trade, industry, defence and religious importance. Now towns perform multiple functions as recreational, residential, transport, mining, manufacturing and information technologies.
According to Census of India 1991, what is the definition of an urban settlement ?
A town should satisfy the given ahead criteria :
- It should have a municipal or corporation or cantonment board or a notified town area committee.
- A minimum population of 5000 persons.
- 75% people engaged in Non-agricultural activities.
- A density of at least 400 persons per sq. km.
Distinguish between compact (Nucleated) settlements and dispersed settlements.
Explain any three points of distinction between ‘Hamleted rural settlements’ and ‘Dispersed rural settlement of India. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Settlements may be classified by their shape, pattern types :
1. Compact Settlements (Nucleated settlements). In these settlements, houses are built in close vicinity to each other. Initially, it may begin as a small hamlet at the intersection of two footpaths or near a water body. As new households are added, the hamlet expands in size.
Such settlements are commonly seen in river valleys and fertile plains. The houses are closely spaced and streets are narrow. Socially, the people are closely knit and share common occupations.
2. Dispersed Settlements (Scattered settlements). In these, houses are spaced apart. These are generally, found over hills, plateaus and highlands. They consist of one or two dwelling units knitted together in a common bond by a cultural feature such as a church, a mosque or a temple.
In Africa, scattered settlements of this kind are common. In India such settlements are found in hilly terrain such as northern Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and northern West Bengal. Isolated hamlets are found in mountainous regions of China.
What are ‘wet point’ settlements? State their three advantages.
Generally rural settlements are located near water bodies, such as rivers, lake and springs. These are called wet points settlements. Despite some disadvantages, people settle around islands and swampy areas.
- They meet the need of water of the people.
- Water for drinking, cooking and washing is obtained.
- Rivers and lakes irrigated farms.
- Fishing is practised in water bodies.
- Rivers and lakes can be used for water transportation.
What is the difference between cities of developed countries and developing countries ?
Towns and cities of developed and developing countries reflect marked differences in planning and development. While most cities in developed countries are planned, most urban settlements of developing countries have grown haphazardly with irregular shapes. For example, Chandigarh and Canberra are planned cities, while smallest town in India have grown haphazardly from walled cities to large towns.
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Describe the factors on which the location of rural settlements depend.
Explain factors which affect the location of rural settlements in the world. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Rural settlements Sitting factors of rural settlements
(i) Water Supply. Usually settlements are located near rivers, lakes and springs w’here water can be easily obtained. Sometimes the need for water drives people to settle in otherwise disadvantaged sites such as islands surrounded by swamps or low lying river banks.
Most water based on “wet point’, settlements have many advantages such as drinking water, cooking, washing- rivers and lakes can be used to irrigate farm land-water contains fish which can be caught for diet and navigable rivers and lakes can be used for transportation.
(ii) Land. Farmers choose to settle near fertile lands suitable for agricultures. In Europe, villages grew up near rolling country avoiding swampy, low lying land while people in South East Asia chose to live near low lying river valleys and coastal plains suited for wet rice cultivation.
(iii) Up Land. Up land which is not prone to flooding was chosen to prevent damage to houses and loss of life. Thus in low lying river basins people chose to settle on terraces and levees which are “dry points”. In tropical countries people build their houses on stills near marshy lands to protect themselves from flood insects and animal pests.
(iv) Shelter. The availability of building materials: woods, stone near settlements is another advantage. Most early villages were built in forest clearings where wood was plentiful. In loess areas of China cave dwellings were important and African Savanna’s building materials were mud bricks and the Eskimos, in polar regions, use ice blocks to construct igloos.
(v) Defence. During the times of political instability, war, hostility of neighbouring groups villages were built on defensive hills and islands. In Nigeria, upstanding inselbergs formed good defensive sites. In India most of the forts are located on higher grounds or hills.
(vi) Planned Settlements. Sites that are not spontaneously chosen by villagers themselves planned settlements are constructed by governments by providing water, food and shelter in uninhabited areas.
What is Settlement Pattern ? Describe the different Rural Settlement y patterns on the basis of a number of criteria. (C.B.S.E. 2011, 2014)
Rural Settlement Patterns. Patterns of Rural Settlements can be defined as the relationship between one house or building to another. The site of the village, the surrounding topography and terrain influence the shape and size of a village. Rural settlements may be broadly classified into :
(i) On the basis of setting. The main types are plain villages, plateau villages, coastal villages, forest villages and desert villages.
(ii) On the basis of functions. There may be farming villages, fishermen’s villages, Lumber-jack villages, Pastoral villages, etc.
(iii) On the basis of forms or shapes of the settlements. There may be a number of geometrical forms and shapes such as linear, rectangular, circular, star-like, T-shaped village, double village cross-shaped village.
(a) Linear patterns. In such settlements, houses are located along a road, railway line, river, canal edge of a valley or along a levee.
(b) Rectangular patterns. Such patterns of rural settlements are found in the plain areas or wide inter
montane valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
(c) Circular pattern. Circular villages develop around lakes, tanks and sometimes the village is planned in such a way that the central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect them from wild animals.
(d) Star-like pattern. Where several roads converge, star-shaped settlements develop by the houses built along the roads.
(e) T-shaped, Y-shaped, Cross-shaped or cruciform settlements. T-shaped settlements develop at tri-junctions of the roads (T) while Y-shaped settlements emerge at the places where two roads converge on the third one and houses are built along these roads. Cruciform settlements develop on the crossroads and houses extend in all the four directions.
(f) Double village. These settlements extend on both sides of a river, where there is a bridge or a ferry.
Give a functional classification MIJ of towns. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Functions and development of a town depends upon its size and site. Towns are classified according to their dominant function. Some towns are commercially important, while in other towns, administration, defence or culture are dominant.
1. Administrative Towns. Public Administration is the major function of such towns. These include capitals of countries and states. These towns have offices, govt, buildings, courts and head offices of many organisations. London, Delhi, Islamabad, Chandigarh are some examples.
2. Defensive Towns. These are towns noted for armies, air force, naval force for the defence of the country. Such towns have barracks and training facilities for armed forces. Jalandhar, Jodhpur and Jammu are some examples of such towns.
3. Cultural Towns. Towns based on the major function of education, religion, culture and art are classified as cultural towns such as :
(a) Educational centres. Most of the educational centres develop on the outskirts of the towns. Such towns have a complex of university, colleges, libraries, hostels, playgrounds and shopping centres. Shanti Niketan, Oxford, Aligarh are educational towns.
(b) Entertainment centres. These towns provide the facilities of entertainment or recreation like theatres, film-making, cultural functions. Hollywood, Stratford are such towns.
(c) Religious centres. Some towns develop as seats of religious leaders of different religions, such as Rome, Lhasa, Varanasi, Amritsar.
4. Collection Towns. In collection centres, raw materials are collected before sending these to factories.
(a) Mining towns. Such towns are based on minerals or fuels like gold, copper, iron, coal and oil, such as Raniganj, Kolar Kalgoorlie,
(b) Fishing ports. Such coastal towns have the facilities of landing, storing, packing and exporting the fish. Halifax, Cochi, Calicut are good examples.
(c) Lumbering towns. Lumbering towns are collecting centres for logs. They have saw mills, pulp plants and paper mills, such as Kathgodam, Nepanagar.
5. Production Centres. Production centres are based on manufacturing activity. These towns have warehouses, godowns, banks and transport networks. Steel centres such as Birmingham, Jamshed Pur are known as ‘Black country’ due to furnaces, but Tokyo, Manchester are neat and clean due to textiles.
6. Distribution Centres. Commercial towns distributing manufactured goods are known as Distribution Centres.
(a) Market towns. These towns consist of banks, stock exchanges, shops, stores and commercial organisations, such as Meerut, Hapur, Moga
(b) Port towns. Sea-ports are important for port facilities, docks, warehouses and functions of import, export and international trade such as Tokyo, Mumbai, London, etc.
(c) Financial towns. Such towns have facilities of trade, finance and consist of stock markets, auction rooms, banks, travel agencies. Frankfurt (Germany), Zurich (Switzerland) are good examples.
7. Resorts. Some resort towns develop due to facilities for tourists along sea coast, on the mountains or by the side of an attractive scenery and health giving waters. Srinagar, Shimla, Darjeeling are good examples of such tourist resorts.