CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication Question Answer Part 2

Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 10
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Transport and Communication Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication Question Answer Part 2

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) In haw many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?

  1. 9
  2. 12
  3. 16
  4. 14

Ans. (3) 16

(ii) Which one of the following is the longest highway of India?

  1. N.H.-1
  2. N.H.-6
  3. N.H.-7
  4. N.H.-8

Ans. (3) N.H.-7

(iii) On which river and between which two places does the National Water Way No. 1 lie?

  1. The Brahmaputra, Sadiya-Dhubri
  2. The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad
  3. West Coast Canal, Kottapuram to Kollam

Ans. (2) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad

(iv) In which of the following year, the first radio programme was broadcast?

  1. 1911
  2. 1936
  3. 1927
  4. 1923

Ans. (4) 1923

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.

Ans. Transport is included in tertiary activities. Under this, people and goods are taken from one place to another. There are three types of transport:

  1. Land transport—Roads, railways, ropeways and pipelines.
  2. Water transport—Inland waterways, sea routes and ocean routes.
  3. Air transport—National and International.

(ii) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.

Ans. Advantages of pipelines:

  • Pipelines are used to transport liquids and gases such as water, mineral oil and natural gas for uninterrupted flow.
  • Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrains as well as underwater.
  • It involves very low energy consumption.
  • It needs very little maintenance.
  • Pipelines are safe and environmental friendly.

Disadvantages of Pipelines:

  • It is not flexible , i.e.,it can be used only for a few points.
  • Initial construction cost is very high.
  • Its capacity cannot be increased once it is laid.
  • It is difficulty to make security arrangements for pipelines.

(iii) What do you mean by ‘communication’?

Ans. It means conveyance of information from the place of origin to the place of destination. Human beings have evolved different methods of communication over time. Invention of post- office, telegraph, printing press, telephone, satellite, etc. has made the communication much faster and easier. Development in the field of science and technology has significantly contributed in bringing about revolution in the field of communication. On the basis of scale and quality, the mode of communication can be divided into following categories:

  1. Personal Communication System
  2. Mass Communication System

(iv) Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian in the air transport of India.

Ans. Air India provides International Air Services for both passengers and ca^go traffic. It connects all the continents of the world through its services. In 2005, it carried 12.2 million passengers and 4.8 Iakh metric tonnes of cargo. About 52 per cent of the total air traffic was handled only at Mumbai and Delhi airports.

Indian airlines were incorporated in 1953. Now Indian Airlines is known as ‘Indian’. The country’s largest state-owned domestic carrier, Indian Airlines dropped the word ‘Airlines’ from its name and is known as ‘Indian’ with effect from December 8, 2005.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.

Ans. The various means of transport available in India are:

  • Road Transport: In our country, we have a good and large network of roads. Roads can be built even in places where other means of transport are not possible. We have kutcha roads and pucca roads in our country. In villages, most of the roads are kutcha roads.The farmers mostly use bullock-carts to carry the goods to towns and cities. Some farmers have tractors; they attach a trolley with the tractor to carry goods. Some villages are connected with pucca roads. The pucca roads provide the means for fast and comfortable travel. The roads in our country connect the towns and cities, even in remote areas like mountains and desert.
  • Rail Transport: Railways are an important means of land transport. The Indian Railway System is today the largest in Asia and the second largest in the world. The Indian railways carry crores of passengers and heavy and bulky goods from one part of country to another. All the important towns and cities are connected by the railways.Railways provide a cheap and fast means of transport.
  • Water Transport: Ships and boats are means of water transport. Ships sail in the oceans and seas, carrying all types of goods from one part of the world to another. India has many ports along its long coastline.Steamers and boats sail along big rivers carrying passengers and goods from town to town, along their banks in India. Big rivers like the Ganga and Brahmaputra are used extensively as an inland means of water transport. The backwaters of Kerala are also widely used for water transport.
  • Air Transport: Aeroplanes are the fastest means of transport. All our major cities are connected to one another and to almost every part of the world through air transport. Air transport has made not only our country but also the entire world very small.Food, medicine, etc., can reach those places where rail and road transport cannot reach. Helicopters and aeroplanes are pressed into service in times of floods, other natural calamities or accidents

Factors influencing the Development of Transport: The development of transport in any region is influenced by the following factors:

(i) The Historical Factor: This involves the location and patterns of systems, technological development, institutional development and settlement, and land-use patterns.
(ii) The Technological Factor: The technological characteristics of each major transport mode are considered together with a discussion of the effects of technological advances.
(iii) The Physical Factor: This includes physiographic controls upon route selection, and geological and climatic influences.
(iv) The Economic Factor: The structure and nature of transport costs are examined, together with service quality and methods of pricing and charging.
(v) Political and Social Factors: These include political motives for transport facilities; government involvement in capital, monopolies competition, safety, working conditions and coordination between modes, transport as an employer and social consequences of transport developments.

(ii) Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.

Ans. Indian railway system is the main artery of the country’s inland transport. Railways virtually form the lifeline of the country, catering to its needs for large scale movement of traffic, both freight and passenger thereby contributing to the economic growth and also promoting national integration. In fact, railways constitute the backbone of surface transport system in India.

Development and Growth of Indian Railways: The first railway line in India was opened for public traffic on 16 April, 1853 between Mumbai and Thane over a distance of 34 km. This line was extended to Kalyan on 1 May, 1854 and to Khopoli on 12 May, 1856. The Khandala-Pune section was opened to traffic on l4 June,1858.

Meanwhile, the construction of the railway lines was going on in eastern part of the country and the first section of the East Indian Railway, from Haora to Hugli, a distance of 37 km was inaugurated on 15 August, 1854.-The Haora-Hugli section was extended to Pundooah on 1 Sept, 1854 and to Raniganj Coal Mines on 3 Feb, 1855. The line from Kanpur to Allahabad was opened in 1859 and the Haora-Khana-Rajmahal section was completed in 1860. Mughal Sarai also appeared on the railway’ map of India in 1862. In 1860, the Kanpur-Etawah section was opened to traffic and between 1862 and 1866 all the gaps between Howrah and Delhi were filled.

The southern part of the country did not lag behind and got its first 105 km long railway line from Royapuram to Arcot in 1856. This line was extended to Kadalundi (near Calicut) on the west coast in 1861. The Jolar Pettai-Bangalore Cantonment section was opened in l864.

In 1870, the all-rail route between Kolkata and Mumbai started functioning and the main line from Mughal Sarai to Lahore (now in Pakistan) was completed. In 1871, the Mumbai-Chennai route was also opened. Thus, within a short span of 18 years from l853 to 1871, most of the important cities of India were connected by rail.

The total route kilometre age in 1870 was 7,680 km which rose to 39,834 km by the turn of 19th century and to 66,234 by 31 March, 1940. As on 15 August 1947, Indian Railways consisted of 65,217 km out of which 10,523 km went to Pakistan, leaving India with 54,694 km.

At present India has the second largest railway network in Asia and the fourth largest in the world after the USA (2, 27,736 km), Russia (2, 22,293 km), and China (87,157 km). But India tops world’s leading countries with regard to passenger/ kilometre earned.

It is the largest public sector undertaking of the country comprising a vast network of 6,906 stations spread over a route length of 63,122 km with a fleet of 7,681 locomotives, 39,852 passenger service vehicles, 4,904 other coaching vehicles and 2,14,760 wagons as on 31March, 2003. The growth of Indian Railways has been phenomenal indeed. Another 55 km long rail route-length between Jammu and Udhampur was added to the existing route-length on 13 April, 2005. Built at the cost of Rs. 600 crore, this is an important part of Rs 3,500 crore project of 344 km rail line connecting Jammu Tawi to Baramulla via Katra, Qazigund and Srinagar.

It has the length of 62,915 km with a fleet of 6,909 locomotives, 39,114 coaches, 3,444 electric multiple units and 2, 80,791 wagons. Another 837 km route length is added with the completion of the Konkan railway route. About 13 thousand trains cover a distance of about 14 Iakh kilometres and carry over 11 million passengers and one million tonnes of freight per day. These facts make Indian railways a vital transport system in the country.

Of the total freight, over 85 per cent comprises coal, ores, foodgrains, cement and petroleum. A huge army of 15 Iakh permanent and 2.5 Iakh temporary employees is ceaselessly active in running and maintaining the railways, making it the largest employer of manpower in India.


1. Railways provide the cheapest and most convenient mode of passenger transport both for long distance and suburban traffic.
2. Railways have played a significant role in development and growth of industries. Growth of textile industry in Mumbai, jute industry in areas surrounding Kolkata, coal industry in Jharkhand, etc is largely due to the development of railway network in these areas. Railways help in supplying raw materials and other facilities to the factory sites and finished goods to the market.
3. Railways have played a significant role in development and growth of industries. Growth of textile industry in Mumbai, jute industry in areas surrounding Kolkata, coal industry in Jharkhand, etc is largely due to the development of railway network in these areas. Railways help in supplying raw materials and other facilities to the factory sites and finished goods to the market.
4. Agriculture also owes its growth to railways to a great extent. Now farmers can sell their agricultural produce to distant places and even sell them in the world market at remunerative prices.
5. Railways are also helpful in removing isolation between cities and countryside and have played a significant role in disseminating innovations and new ideas.
6. Railways are particularly suited to long distance journey and provide a strong medium of national integration.
7. Introduction of super-fast trains and container services in major cities of India have ensured quick movement of men and material.

(iii) Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India. Ans. Importance of Roads:

  • Roads play a very important role in the transportation of goods and passengers for short and medium distances.
  • It is comparatively easy and cheap to construct and maintain roads.
  • Road transport system establishes easy contact between farms, fields, factories and markets and provides door to door service.
  • Roads can negotiate high gradients and sharp turns which railways cannot do. As such, roads can be constructed in hilly areas also.
  • Roads act as great feeders to railways. Without goods and sufficient roads, railways cannot collect sufficient produce to make their operation successful.
  • Road transport is more flexible than the railway transport. Buses and trucks may be stopped anywhere and at anytime on the road for loading and unloading passengers and goods whereas trains stop only at particular stations.
  • Perishable commodities like vegetables, fruits and milk are transported more easily and quickly by roads than by railways.
    Due to above-mentioned advantages, the road transport has become very popular and its share is constantly increasing.

NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download

CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy

Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is total length of roads in India ?
42 lakh kms.

Question 2.
Name the two terminal stations of East- west Corridor.
Silchar and Porbandar.

Question 3.
Which is the longest National Highway ?
National Highway no 7- (Varanasi to Kanniyakumari).

Question 4.
What is the National average density of the roads in India ?
125 km.

Question 5.
What is the total length of railways in India ?
1,15,000 km.

Question 6.
How many international airports are there in India ?

Question 7.
When was Prasar Bharti set up ?
In 1997.

Question 8.
When was radio transmission started in India ?
In 1927.

Question 9.
Expand PSLV.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

Question 10.
When was the first telecast by Doordarshan started ?
15 September, 1959.

Question 11.
On which levels does the transportation functions as a lifeline of the economy ?
Global, national, regional and local.

Question 12.
Name three forms of Communication.
Physical (Postal Services), through Telegraph and through Airwaves.

Question 13.
Which is the longest National highway in India ?
Prom Varanasi to Kanniyakumari—2,369 km.

Question 14.
Which states has the highest and the lowest density of metalled roads in India ?

  • The Highest road density—Kerala (387 per 100 sq. km.)
  • The lowest road density Jammu & Kashmir— (3.5 km per 100 sq. km.)

Question 15.
State any two advantages of air transport in the International trade. (CBSE – 2018)

  • Over long distances deliver items quickly.
  • Require less time.

Question 16.
On the basis of configuration and purpose, compare the two satellite systems in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
(1) Indian National Satellite System (INSAT).
(2) Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS)

Question 17.
Name the two categories of air transport in India.
International and domestic.

Question 18.
Name the Headquarters of Northern Railway zone.
New Delhi.

Question 19.
Identify the Indian seaport which provides port facilities to its landlocked neighbour countries. Name any one such country. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Kolkata Seaport and Nepal Sea Port.

Question 20.
Name the Air service of India which connects all the continents.
Air India.

Question 21.
Which category of roads in India constitute only 2% of the total road length but carry about 40% of the total road traffic ?
National Highways.

Question 22.
Name a port of the Maharashtra and a port of Tamil Nadu which have been constructed to reduce the pressure of the existing major ports.
(a) Maharashtra – Nhava Sheva
(b) Tamil Nadu – Ennore.

Question 23.
Why is the density of rural roads very low in hilly areas of India? Give one reason. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
It is difficult to construct roads due to hilly terrain of the area.

Question 24.
State the main function of National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). (C.B.S.E. 2013)
What are the major functions of the National Highways Authority of India?
Which is the apex body responsible to improve the quality of roads at National level in India? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017 Set-II)
To improve the quality of National Highway.

Question 25.
What means of transport is more suitable for long distanes in Northern Eastern region ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Pawan Hans Helicopters.

Question 26.
Name the northern most international air port of India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)

Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What are the important modes of transport in India ?

  • Railways
  • Roadways
  • Airways
  • Waterways
  • Pipelines.

Question 2.
What are the disadvantages of road transport?
Disadvantages of Road Transport.

  • Road transport is costly.
  • It results in air pollution.
  • Heavy goods cannot be taken to long distance.
  • Road transport is more accident prone.

Question 3.
What is the Golden Quadrilateral ?
Explain the term ‘Gloden Quadrilateral.
It is a super-highway project linking Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai. It has six super highways. It forms the shape of a Quadrilateral.

Question 4.
Name four national highways mentioning their terminals.
(i) Sher Shah Suri Marg. National Highway No. 1. (Delhi to Amritsar)
(ii) National Highway No. 3. Between Agra and Mumbai.
(iii) National Highway No. 7. Between Varanasi and Kanniyakumari.
(iv) National Highway No. 2. Between Delhi and Kolkata.

Question 5.
Name two national waterways.
1. National Waterway No. 1. Pravagraj Haldia on Ganga river.
2. National Waterway No. 2. Sadiya to Dhubri or Brahmaputra.

Question 6.
Name the different types of railways in India on the basis of width. Where does India rank in world railways ?
Rail Transport
Indian railway system is the main artery of the country’s inland transport. It is the biggest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. It has a route length of 63221 km on which 12,670 trains run every day connecting 7,500 stations. Indian railways comprise of three gauges: broad gauge (1.616 metres is the distance between both the lines); metre gauge (1.00 metre) and narrow gauge (0.762 and 0.610 metres). Its fleet of locomotives comprises of steam, diesel and electric engines.

Different parts of railways having different width have been constructed in India due to its diverse relief. Broad gauge railway lines are constructed in plains while narrow gauge railway lines are constructed in hilly region.

  • Broad gauge = 1.6 metres wide
  • Metre gauge = 1 metre wide
  • Narrow gauge = 0.76 metre wide.
GaugeTotal routePercentage
Broad46.887 km71.11%
Metre13,210 km21.27%
Narrow3,124 km94%

Question 7.
Describe the two main types of air services in India.
The air services In India are of two types viz. international and domestic. Air India provides international air services for both passengers and cargo traffic to 35 destinations from four focal points—Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Air India carried 3.83 million passengers in 2000-01.

Major international air routes are Delhi-Rome-Frankfurt, Mumbai-London, Delhi-Moscow, Kolkata-Tokyo, Kolkata-Perth, Mumbai- London-New York. Indian Airlines, Affiance Air (subsidiary of Indian Airlines), private scheduled airlines and air taxis provide domestic air services.

Indian Airlines operations also extends to the neighbouring countries of Southeast Asia and West Asia. At present, there are two private scheduled airlines operating on the domestic network; 38 companies hold non-scheduled air taxi operators permit. Private operators presently cater to nearly 52.8 per cent of the domestic air traffic. The share of private sector airways has increased rapidly after liberalisation.

Question 8.
What are the problems of having three railway gauges ?
The railways in India are of three gauages— Broad gauge, metre gauge and narrow gauge. The metre gauge is being converted into broad gauge. This is called unigauge project. It avoids the transhipment of goods from one gauge to another. It will increase the capacity of transportation by trains and will he cheaper also.

We have already noted that Indian Railways operate on three different gauges. This poses problems in the smooth flow of goods and passengers. The shift from one gauge line to the other involves unloading and transhipment which is time-consuming and expensive. The perishable commodities cannot withstand such a delay. Moreover, the passenger and freight traffic has been increasing day by day. The tracks are not suitable to take the heavy loads.

Question 9.
Describe the different means of communication.
Communication network carries information from one place to another physically like postal services, through wires like telegraph and telephone, or through airwaves like radio and television. Some communication systems work in cooperation with transport system like postal services. Others, however, function independent of the transport system such as radio.

Question 10.
Where does India rank in the world in context to roadways ? Describe the major National Highways.
“India has one of the largest network of roads in the world.” Support the statement with examples. (Delhi 2019)
Roads. The road network in India is one of the largest in the world. The road length has increased from 397.62 thousand kilometres in 1950-51 to around 42 lakh kilometres. Of the total kilometreage, the length of the surfaced (metalled) roads increased from 156.11 thousand kilometres in 1950-51 to 833.0 thousands kilometres while the unsurfaced (unmetalled) road length during the same period increased from 241.5 thousand kilometres to 940 thousand kilometres.

National Highways. A number of important National Higways in India run in north-south and east- west directions. They link one part with the other

  • Sher Shah Suri Marg is historically very important. It connects Kolkata with Peshawar. It is now known as National Highway 1, which links Delhi and Amritsar,
  • National Highway 2 which links Delhi and Kolkata
  • National Highway 3 runs between Agra and Mumbai via Gwalior, Indore and Nasik.
  • National Highway 7 is the longest one which links Varanasi with Kanniyakumari via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Madurai. It traverses a distance of 2,325 km.
  • National Highways 5 and 17 run along the eastern and western coasts respectively.
  • National Highways 15 represents the border road in Rajasthan desert and run through Kandla, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and joins the border road in Punjab.

Question 11.
Name the different units manufacturing Railway equipments.
Indian Railways run six units to manufacture rolling stock. These are :
(i) Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Chittaranjan
(ii) Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi
(iii) Integral Coach Factory, Perambur
(iv) Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala
(v) Wheel and Axle Plant, Bangalore, and
(vi) Diesel Component Works, Patiala.

Question 12.
Describe the national waterways of India.
The Inland Waterways Authority of India was set up in 1986 for the development, maintenance, and regulation of National Waterways in the country. At present, there are only three National Waterways in the country. Ten other waterways are being considered for upgradation as National Waterways.

The three national Waterways are:

  • National Waterway 1 : The Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi Hooghly river system (1620 km);
  • National Waterways 2 : The Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river (891 km);
  • National Waterways 3 : The West Coast Canal from Kottapuram to Kollam alongwith Udyogmandal and Champakar canals (205 km).

Question 13.
Write a note on Akashvani.
Akashvani : Radio is an effective means of mass communication in the country. Radio broadcasting started in India in 1927 with two private transmitters located at Mumbai and Kolkata. All India Radio (AIR) was constituted in 1936. It is also known as Akashvani. At the time of Independence there were six radio stations. At present, the All India Radio has 208 stations and 327 transmitting centres.

These stations and transmitting centres provide services to 99 per cent of the population and 90 per cent of the area of the country. Private parties also have set up about 100 FM radio stations. All India Radio broadcastes a variety of programmes like information, education and entertainment.

Question 14.
Write a note on Doordarshan in India.
Doordarshan: Doordarshan, the national television of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It has changed socio-cultural life of the people both in villages and in towns. DD-1 operates through a network of 1,042 terrestrial transmitters that reaches to over 87 per cent of the population.

There are 65 additional transmitters giving terrestrial support to other channels. First telecast by Doordarshan was made on 15 September, 1959. Television was confined to certain cities up to 1975. The first experiment with satellite technology in India known as the Satellite Instructional

Television Experiment (SITE), was conducted in 1975-76. National programme and use of colour television could be started in the country only by 1992. Afterwards, television facility expanded very rapidly.

All India Radio has introduced commercial programmes also. Vivid Bharati channels have commercial broadcasting. Besides Vividh Bharati, other channels and local stations also provide commercial services. For rtiral audiences, several programmes are regularly transmitted.

Similarly, programmes on family welfare and healthcare are broadcasted every day. Music and drama are major components of the schedule of broadcasting. All India Radio commissioned the National Channel in 1998, which is essentially a night service, airing evening to morning broadcast.

Question 15.
What do you mean by ‘Open Sky Policy5 ?
Air transport terminals are called airports. Air transport cost is comparatively very high, and therefore, it is mainly used for passenger services. Only light and valuable cargo is dispatched by cargo aircraft. In order to help Indian exporters and make their export more competitive, the Government of India introduced the ‘open sky policy5 for cargo. Under this policy any foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring freighters to the country for upliftment of cargo.

Question 16.
What do you know about Sher Shah Suri Marg ?
Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road to strengthen and consolidate his empire from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley in Bengal. This road was renamed the Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar. At present, it extends from Amritsar to Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments:

  • National Highway (NH)- 1 from Delhi to Amritsar, and
  • NH-2 from Delhi to Kolkata.

Question 17.
What are the importance of Konkan Railway ? (C.B.S.E. 2017)
Describe any three features of Konkan Railway. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Answer: Konkan Railway. One of the important achievements of Indian Railways has been the construction of Konkan Railway in 1998. It is 760 km long rail route connecting Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka. It is considered an engineering marvel.

It crosses 146 rivers, streams, nearly 2000 bridges and 91 tunnels. Asia’s largest tunnel which is nearly 6.5 km long, also lies on this route. The states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka are partners in this undertaking.

Question 18.
State any six characteristics of road transport in India. (C.B.S.E. 2009)

  • India has one of the largest road network in the world.
  • The total length of roads in India is 42 lakh kms.
  • About 85% of passenger and 70 percent of freight traffic is carried by roads.
  • Roads continue to concentrate in and around urban centres.
  • Rural areas have the least km of roads.
  • 5846 km long Golden Quadrilateral network connects Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.

Question 19.
Which is the most effective and advanced personal communication system in India ? Explain any four characteristics of it. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Internet is the most effective and advanced personal communication system in India.

  • It is widely used in urban areas.
  • It connects the user through E-mail with the world.
  • It is widely used for e-commerce and carrying out money transactions.
  • It is a store house of detailed data.

Question 20.
Explain with five suitable examples how the level of Economic development and nature of terrian affect the density of roads in India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India? Explain with l examples. (CBSE2016)
The distribution of roads is not uniform in the country. The level of economic development and nature of terrian are the main determinants of density of roads.

  • Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in plain area.
  • Quality of roads is better in plains, as compared to roads in high altitude areas.
  • The density of road is 10.48 km in Jammu and Kashmir (including Ladakh) where as it is 387.24 km in Kerala (a plain area).
  • The density of roads is high in northern states due to the high level of economic development.

Question 21.
What are National Highway ? Explain any four uses of national ‘ highways in India ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Describe any five characteristics of national Highway of India. (CBSE 2018)
National Highway: The main roads which are constructed by the Central Government are known as the National Highways.

  • These are meant for inter-state transport.
  • These help in movement of defence goods and material in strategic areas.
  • These connect the state capitals, major cities ports, railway junctions, etc.
  • These carry 40% of road traffic, while these ae only 2% of the total road length.

Question 22.
The railway network in the north Indian Plain is dense. Why ?
A dense network of railways is developed in the north Indian plains. About 50% of the total length of railways in India is found in northern India. The northern railways is the longest railway with a length of 10,977 kms. Many physical and economic factors are responsible for it.

  • Northern plain is a level plain with low altitude. It is best suited for the construction of railways.
  • Due to dense population, big towns have developed which has led to high density of railway.
  • The intensive development of agriculture and industries has promoted the construction of railway lines.
  • It is essential to connect Mumbai and Kolkata with their hinterlands or northern plain.

Question 23.
Describe the growth and development of Border Roads in India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Which apex body develop the border roads ? Explain the importance of border roads with examples. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Looking at the strategic importance of our border areas, the Border Roads Organisation was set up in 1960 and entrusted with the construction and maintenance of roads in the border states of the country. These border roads have helped in accelerating the economic development in these areas by increasing accessibility besides helping in strengthening of the defence preparedness.

It includes the highest road of the world from Manali to Leh, at an altitude of 4220 metres above sea level. Along Indo-Chinese border, Hindustan Tibetan Road has been constructed. The board has constructed about 22800 km of Border roads and manages above 16400 km. of roads in border area.

Question 24.
Why has Punjab the highest density of roads ? Explain five factors responsible for the same.
Punjab has the highest density of surfaced roads. The density of roads is 74 km. per 100 sq. km. It is due to the following factors:

(1) Punjab plain is a gently sloping alluvial plain. It is easy to construct roads.

(2) Punjab is an agriculturally developed state. For the easy and quick movements of agricultural products, roads have been constructed.

(3) Punjab exports wheat, rice and other crops to other parts of India. Therefore quick means of transportation is required.

(4) The per capita income of people and the standard of living is quite high. So the state needs a lot of manufactured goods and raw materials. Roads provide door to door service.

(5) The movement of passenger traffic is high. So, roads are required especially for the rural areas.

Question 25.
‘A well-knit and co-ordinated system of transport is necessary for sustained economic growth of the country’. Discuss.
Transport network is established to facilitate the movement of people and goods. It is the means of bringing human beings and the things they need and use together. It functions as a lifeline of the spatial economy at all territorial levels: A transport system involves origin, destination, route and the carrier.

  • Origin. Origin is the point where the traffic originates.
  • Destination. Destination is the point where it terminates.
  • Route. Route is the surface on which movement takes place.
  • Carrier. The carrier is the vehicle that moves the passenger or cargo. A well-knit and coordinated system of transport plays an important role in the sustained economic growth of the country.

Question 26.
Account for the growing importance of roads.
In India, the growing importance of road transport vis-a-vis rail transport is rooted in following reasons:

  • Construction cost of road is much lower than that of railway line
  • Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography
  • Road transport can economically carry few persons and relatively small amount of goods.
  • Cost of loading and unloading is much lower in case of road transport, because it provides door-to-door service.
  • Road transport also supplements other modes of transportation. It provides link between railway stations and airports and their hinterlands.

Question 27.
How are Indian Railways contributing to the growth of national economy ? Explain with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Answer: Indian Railways :
(i) Indian railways network is one of the longest in the world.

(ii) It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers. The total freight carried by railways is 557.39 million tonnes. The total number of passengers carried by railways is 5112 million.

(iii) Metro rail has revolutionised the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi.

(iv) Railways developed around towns, raw material producing areas, hill stations have been developed for the exploitation of resources.

(v) Railways could run to remain the main means of transport for the masses.

Question 28.
Distinguish between
(a) Personal communication and
(b) Mass communication.
Classify means of communication on the basis of scale and quality into two categories. Explain any two characteristics of each category. (Outside Delhi C.B.S.E. 2017)

Personal CommunicationMass Communication
1. Personal communi­cation are the means of delivering messages belween individuals or small groups. 2. Messages are carried between the sender and the receiver both ways. 3. These means of communication include post card, letter, telegram. fax, telephone.1. These are the means of delivering messages from an individual or a group to a large audience. 2. Messages  are delivered from a sender to a large audience usually one­way. 3. These means of communic. ion include newspapers, magazines and other periodicals, electronic media like radio, television, films, etc.

Question 29.
Distinguish between a National and a State highway.

National HighwaysState Highways
1. These are the major roads of the whole country. 2.  These connect the different capitals of state with major industrial and commercial towns of the country. 3. These are maintained by the Central Govt. 4. Total length of national highways in India is 71,000 kms. 5. These have commercial and strategic signi­ficance; 6. Sher Shah Suri Marg (G.T. Road) is a national highway.1. These are the major roads within a state. 2. These connect the state capitals with the major towns and district head- quarters within a state. 3. These are maintained by the State Govt. 4. The total length of state highways is 1,37,712 kms. 5. These have admini­strative signifi-cance. 6. Amritsar-Chandigarh is a state highway.

Question 30.
What are border roads ? Gi ve I two characteristics of border roads. (C.B.S.E. 2013, Outside Delhi 2019)
Border roads are strategically important roads along the Northern and North-eastern boundary of the country.
(i) These are roads in high altitudes and mountainous areas.
(ii) These are contructed and maintained by BRO (Border Road Organisation).

Question 31.
Describe any three advantage of Satellite Communication in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Advantage of Satellite Communication
Satellite communication is vital for the country due to economic and strategic reasons:
(i) They are significant means of communication.
(ii) These can be used for the weather-forecast, monitoring of natural calamities, surveillance of border areas.
(iii) This is useful in the management of natural resources.

Question 32.
‘The distribution of roads in I India is not uniform’. Examine the statement giving three reasons. (Sample Paper 2018-19) (C.B.S.E. 2014)
(i) The density of roads varies from only 10.48 km in Jammu and Kashmir (including Ladakh) to 387.24 km in Kerala.
(ii) Nature of topography is the main basis of road density.
(iii) Construction of roads is easy and cheaper on plains, while it is expensive on hilly terrain.

Question 33.
Describe any three advantages of pipelines as a means of transport in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
(i) Pipelines are used to transport liquids and gases.
(ii) It is environmental-friendly means of transport.
(iii) Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrain and also under water.

Question 34.
Define the term ‘communication.’ Describe the importance of telecommunication. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Communication is an activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages or information by speech, visual, writing or behaviour.
Importance of Telecommunication:

  • Telecommunication is an important tool for busines. This device is used to receive and send messages, access data etc.
  • This refers to the exchange of information with electronic and electrical means over a long distance.
  • Telecommunication also useful for students.
  • Telecommunication is helpful for people living in areas that do not have special care facility. With this they get in touch with a healthcare provider.
  • Telecommunication play a vital role in transport sector.

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