Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Question Answer NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B – India People and Economy Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Question Answer
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?
- Work and employment
Ans. (3) Work and employment
(ii) Which one of the following states receives maximum number of immigrants?
- Uttar Pradesh
Ans. (1) Uttar Pradesh
(iii) Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?
Ans. (3) Rural-urban
(iv) Which one of the following urban agglomeration has the highest share of in migrant population?
- Mumbai UA
- Delhi UA
- Bangalore UA
- Chennai UA
Ans. (1) Mumbai UA
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Differentiate between lifetime migrant and migrant by last residence.
Ans. When the place of birth of a person is different from the place of enumeration, the person is known as lifetime migrant. On the other hand, if the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration he is known as migrant by place of last residence.
(ii) Identify the main reason for male/female selective migration.
Ans. Main reason of male migration is work and employment. 65% males migrate for economic reasons.
Marriage is the main cause of migration among females. Only 2% females migrate for work and employment.
(iii) What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the place of origin and destination?
Ans. The impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the place of origin and destination are-
1.Rural-urban migration is one of the important factor contributing to the population growth of cities.
2. Age and skill-selective out migration from the rural areas have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
3. However, high out-migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, MP and Maharashtra have brought serious on age and sex composition in these states .Similar imbalance are also brought in the receipents states.
4. Migration affects the status of women directly.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.
Ans.Consequences of international migration:
I. Positive consequences:
1.The effects of skilled migration have been ambiguous. On the positive side, the success of India migrants overseas has been good for India’s reputation. In addition, this segment of the diaspora has woven a web of cross-national networks, thereby facilitating the flow of tacit information, commercial and business ideas, and technologies into India. It has also facilitated “home sourcing”, as exemplified by the rapid growth of India’s diamond cutting and polishing industry. The Indian diaspora has also had important trade enhancing and investment effects.
2.The oil boom-induced Gulf migration in the early 1970s is when efforts at attracting inflows from Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) began. Since then financial remittance has emerged as an important part of India’s balance of payments. Remittances were virtually negligible in 1970, rose to 2.8 billion in 1980, stagnated during the 1980s and even dropped slightly to 2.4 billion in 1990. Since then they have climbed steeply to 11.1 billion in 1999 and over 50 billion — nearly 5 percent of GDP — in 2009.
Il. Negative consequences:
1. The loss of significant numbers of the highly skilled has undoubtedly had negative effects as well, perhaps most manifest in reducing the supply of professionals with the managerial and technical capabilities to run institutions and organizations, be they colleges or hospitals, statistical systems or research laboratories. A prime example of these adverse effects can be seen in India’s higher education system. When the IITs and IIMs, as well as new science and technology research institutes were set up in the 1950s and 1960s many of the key personnel in these institutions were trained abroad and returned to India, inspired by the heady days of “nation building.” But by the late 1960s, more and more of India’s best and brightest began to go abroad, never to return. The small number who did were sufficient to maintain the high standards of a small number of institutions, but not their expansion, and the number of graduates from these elite institutions remained virtually unchanged for four decades.
(ii) What are the socio-demographic consequences of migration?
Ans. Social Consequences:
Migration act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large. But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.
1. Migration may have profound effects on the size, structure and growth
patterns of populations. Migration has effects on both the populations of the
places that people leave and on the populations of those in which they settle.
These effects vary with different types of migration and the length of migrants’
stays in places. The absence of large numbers of either men or women may
have a limited impact on the sending society in the short term but if they are
absent for longer periods of time their absence will have significant effects on
population growth rates in the medium and longer terms.
2.Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
From which countries, people have been migrating to India ?
Central and Western Asia as well as South East Asia.
To which countries Indian traders migrate ?
Malaysia and Singapore.
Why did skilled labourers migrated to Middle-East ?
Due to increase in oil production.
Which information have been added in Census ?
Place of Birth and Place of Residence.
How many migrants are in India on the basis of last residence ?
Explain why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India. (Delhi 2019)
This is because of marriage of female from one village to the another village. After marriage women is to live at another village away from her parents village. That is why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India.
From which, country maximum migration has taken place ?
Which state has maximum migrants ?
Which state has maximum emigrants ?
Uttar Pradesh—26 lakh.
State two causes of migration.
Push factor and Pull factors.
In which state of India is the number of immigrate the largest. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Name the two main types of I migration. Name the four main streams of migration.
The migration is of two types :
(а) Internal. Within the country.
(b) International. Out of the country.
The internal migration has four streams :
(i) Rural to rural
(ii) Rural to urban
(iii) Urban to urban
(iv) Urban to rural.
Differentiate between immigration and emigration. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Immigration-Migrants who move into a new place. Emigration-Migrants who move out of a place are Emigrants.
In Intra-state migration, from rural to urban areas males have the larger share. Why ? (C.B.S.E. 2017)
Explain why male migration is higher than, females from rural to urban areas in India. (Delhi 2019)
Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate.
In Mumbai Agglomeration, the number of migrants is the highest. Why ?
Mumbai Agglomeration is the largest town of India. The state is also large in size. Mumbai is the largest port and industrial town of India. So people migrate to this town in search of work and employment.
ExpIain the main reasons for the migration of. males and females separately in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Males migrate mainly for work and employment. Females migrate from their parental house due to their marriage. Males move for life security while women move for medical treatment, etc.
Distinguish between Pull factors and Push factors affecting migration.
There are two main causes of migration:
(a) Push factors
(b) Pull factors.
(a) Push factors. These factors compel people to leave their place of residence. In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc. Besides these, natural disaster like flood, drought, earthquakes, Tsunami, wars and local conflicts also give extra push to migrate.
(b) Pull factors. There are pull factors which attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages. Better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment, etc., are also quite important pull factors.
Write a note on immigration from neighbouring countries.
India also experiences, immigration from and migration to neighbouring countries. Indian Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came from the neighbouring countries : Bangladesh (3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million) and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0.16 million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is concerned, it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across 110 countries.
Distinguish between Intra-State Migration and Inter-State Migration.
|Intra State-Migration||Inter-State Migration|
|1. If the movement of population is within remains the same State, it is called IntraState Migration. 2. For example, migration between Agra and Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh).||1. If the movement of the population occurs beyond the boundaries of the State, it is called Inter-State Migration. 2. For example, migration between Agra (Uttar Pradesh) and Bharatpur (Rajasthan).|
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Define a Migrant. On what factors does migration depend ? Explain the terms ‘Pull’ and ‘Push’ factors used in migration. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Migration. The movement of population from one place to another is called migration. A migrant person is one who at a given census was enumerated at a place other than his/her place of birth.
There are four streams of migration :
- Rural to rural
- Rural to urban
- Urban to urban
- Urban to rural.
Causes of Migration :
Migration occurs due to many factors :
- Search for jobs.
- To get better living conditions in towns.
- Migration due to marriages of females.
- Social insecurity.
- Political disturbances.
Pull factors. When migration occurs due to the attraction of a city or town, it is called ‘Pull factor’. People migrate in search of better facilities for education, recreation, health, etc. to towns.
Push factors. When people do not find means of livelihood in the villages, they move towards towns. Rural resources of land were not able to sustain any longer. They are just ‘pushed out’ to big cities. This is called Push factor.
Describe the economic, demographic, social and environmental consequences of Migration.(C.B.S.E. 2014)
Examine the economic and social consequences of migration in India.(C.B.S.E. 2016)
How is migration a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over a space? Explain the economic con-sequences of migration in India. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017 Set-T)
Explain the causes and consequences of Rural Urban migration in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Consequences of Migration. Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. This, in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.
1. Economic Consequences. A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. In 2002, India received US$ 11 billion as remittances from international migrants. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
Use of Foreign Remittances.
(1) Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses etc.
(2) For thousands of the poor villages of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, etc. remittance works as life blood for their economy.
(3) Migration from rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh accounted for the success of their green revolution strategy for agricultural development.
2. Demographic Consequences. Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states. Similar imbalances are also brought in the recipients states.
3. Social Consequences. Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.
(1) Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures.
(2) It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations.
(3) It widens up the mental horizon of the people at large.
(4) But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals.
(5) Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.
4. Environmental Consequences.
- Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas.
- This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies.
- Apart from this, due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.
(1) Migration (even excluding the marriage migration) affects the status of women directly or indirectly.
(2) In the rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women.
(3) Migration of ‘women’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increases their vulnerability.
(4) If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost.
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions HOTS
“The sex-ratio in Asian Urban areas remains male dominated, while in rural areas it remains female dominated.” Evaluate the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate so the sex ratio in Asian Urban areas remains male dominated and rural areas remains female dominated because of marriage. After marriage the girl is to live at another area away from her parents house.
Explain any three push factors that have caused rural to urban migration in India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Push factors compel people to leave their place of residence.
- People migrate from rural areas to urban areas mainly due to poverty.
- People migrate due to lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care and education.
- Natural disasters also force people to migrate.