CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities Question Answer

Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

Question 1. (i)

Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?

(a) Coffee

(b) Sugarcane

(c) Wheat

(d) Rubber

Answer:

(c) Wheat

Question 1. (ii)

In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?

(a) Russia

(b) Denmark

(c) India

(d) The Netherlands

Answer:

(b) Denmark

Question 1. (iii)

The growing of flowers is called:

(a) Truck farming

(b) Factory farming

(c) Mixed fanning

(d) Floriculture

Answer:

(d) Floriculture

Question 1.(iv)

Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?

(a) Kolkoz

(b) Viticulture

(c) Mixed farming

(d) Plantation

Answer:

(d) Plantation

Question 1.(v)

In which one of the following regions is extensive commercial grain cultivation not practiced?

(a) American Canadian prairies

(b) European Steppes

(c) Pampas of Argentina

(d) Amazon Basin

Answer:

(d) Amazon Basin

Question 1.(vi)

In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?

(a) Market gardening

(b) Mediterranean agriculture

(c) Plantation agriculture

(d) Co-operative farming

Answer:

(b) Mediterranean agriculture

Question 1. (vii)

Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash and bum agriculture?

(a) Extensive subsistence farming

(b) Primitive subsistence farming

(c) Extensive commercial grain cultivation

(d) Mixed farming

Answer:

(b) Primitive subsistence farming

Question 1. (viii)

Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?

(a) Dairy farming

(b) Mixed farming

(c) Plantation agriculture

(d) Commercial grain farming

Answer:

(b) Mixed farming

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2. (i)

The future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.

Answer:

These days the biggest problem being faced by the shifting cultivators is shortening cycles of jhum, which makes the entire practice unsustainable.

Also, there are several restrictions imposed by governments through forest acts, etc., which hinder the free movement of tribes and the practice of shifting cultivation.

Shifting cultivation is sustainable (only for self-consumption) in nature, hence it is unable to meet the market demand, and therefore there is no scope for it in the increasing globalized markets.

With the infiltration of non-tribals in the tribal areas, tribals are adopting modem agricultural practices which are more productive and environmentally sustainable.

To support a small population, a huge land resource base is required, ultimately it leads to soil erosion and land degradation.

Question 2. (ii)

Market gardening is practiced near urban areas. Why?

Answer:

Market gardening specializes in the cultivation of high-value perishable crops such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers, solely for the urban markets. They are situated close to urban markets mainly because of the high-value crops.

The crops are costly, hence they need to be situated close to a market where people have high purchasing power and also demand for high-valued crops. In such a situation urban areas are the perfect markets.

These crops are perishable; hence farms cannot be situated far away from the main market. Therefore, farms are situated close to the urban markets to prevent crops from getting stale.

Question 2. (iii)

Large-scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.

Answer:

Dairy products are highly perishable. They have a very small shelf life. For their supply to overseas and distant markets, adequate storage facilities with regulated temperature and storage conditions are essential. Initially, the supply of dairy products was limited to nearby markets but the development of storage, preservation, and transportation facilities have widened their coverage.

Modem transportation such as refrigerated trucks, ships with special cargoes, and faster means of transportation like airways provide adequate facilities, which allow transportation of dairy products to far-off markets without spoilage. Refrigeration prevents dairy products from getting spoiled. It increases their durability. Hence dairy products can be sold in far-off places.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:

Question 3. (i)

Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.

Answer:

Nomadic Herding 

(i) In nomadic herding herders move with their animals from place to place, and rely on them totally for food, cloth, and transportation. 

(ii) It is a primitive subsistence activity. 

(iii) Multiple animals are kept depending upon the region. 

(iv) Herders keep on moving with animals from one place to another according to the availability of pasture and water. They also practice transhumance. The area of a tribe is decided by a matter of tradition. 

(v) Generally related to nomadic tribes.

(vi) Little or no capital is utilized. 

(vii) Primarily a subsistence activity, in which herder rely on animals for their need of food, cloth, transportation, etc.

(viii) No modern technological support. 

Commercial Livestock Rearing

(i) Commercial livestock rearing is a modern practice of rearing animals for the export of animal products.

(ii) It is a modern scientific, market-oriented activity.

(iii) Single types of animals are kept.

(iv) It is carried out on huge permanent ranches, scientifically managed parcels.

(v) Associated with western developed countries.

(vi) High capital intake and spent on caring, feeding, and breeding of animals.

(vii) It is a market-oriented activity where animals like horsand, and sheep are reared to obtain products like meat, hides, etc. for sales in national as well as international markets.

(viii) It is highly mechanized.

Question 3. (ii)

Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name a few important plantation crops from different countries.

Answer:

Initially introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics, plantation agriculture is distinct from other kinds of agricultural practices because of its specific features.

The characteristic features of this type of farming are:

Profit-oriented large-scale production system

Large estates and plantations

Huge capital investment

Totally market-oriented

The scientific method of cultivation

Cheap and large skilled labor supply

Monoculture

It is a link between agriculture and industry.

They are provided with well-developed transportation facilities where raw material provided them is processed.

Important Plantation Crops:

The French established cocoa and coffee plantations in West Africa.

The British set up Large tea gardens in India and Sri Lanka,

Rubber plantations in Malaysia and Sugarcane and banana plantations in West Indies.

Spanish and Americans invested heavily in coconut and sugarcane plantations in the Philippines.

The Dutch once had a monopoly over sugarcane plantations in Indonesia.

Some coffee fazendas (large plantations) in Brazil are still managed by Europeans.

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Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 NCERT Extra Questions

Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which was the first activity carried out by human beings?
Answer:
Hunting and gathering are the oldest activities carried out by human beings.

Question 2.
Who are the red-collar workers?
Answer:
People engaged in primary activities are called red-collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.

Question 3.
Why do the products from gathering activities cannot compete in the world market?
Answer:
Products of these activities cannot compete in the world market as

  • Synthetic products of better quality and lower prices have replaced many items supplied by gatherers in the tropical forests, unable to face competition.
  • As it is a low technology subsistence activity not much surplus is there.

Question 4.
Which factors affect the choice of animals in different regions of nomadic herding?
Answer:
People living in different climatic conditions domesticate animals found in those regions. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending upon the amount and quality of water and pasture.

Question 5.
Define nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism.
Answer:
It is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on their animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools, and transport. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending upon the amount and quality of water and pasture.

Question 6.
Why is the number of pastoral nomads decreasing?
Answer:
The number of pastoral nomads has been decreasing and the areas under them are shrinking because of

  • imposition of political boundaries
  • new settlement plans by different countries.

Question 7.
Name the areas where commercial livestock rearing is practiced.
Answer:
The areas are New Zealand, Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, and the United States of America.

Question 8.
Define subsistence agriculture.
Answer:
Subsistence agriculture is the agriculture in which the producers consume most of the products grown. The output is generally for consumption by farmers and their families.