CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture Question Answer Part 2

Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture Question Answer Part 2

1. Choose the right answer of the following from the given options.

(i) Which one of the following is NOT a land-use category?

  1. Fallow land
  2. Marginal land
  3. Net area sown
  4. Culturable wasteland

Ans. (2) Marginal land

(ii) Which one of the following is the main reason due to which share of forest has shown an increase in the last forty years?

  1. Extensive and efficient efforts of afforestation
  2. Increase in community forest land
  3. Increase in notified area allocated for forest growth
  4. Better peoples’ participation in managing forest area.

Ans. (1) Extensive and efficient efforts of afforestation

(iii) Which one of the following is the main form of degradation in irrigated areas?

  1. Gully erosion
  2. Wind erosion
  3. Salinisation of soils
  4. Siltation of land

Ans. (3) Salinisation of soils

(iv) Which one of the following crops is not cultivated under dryland farming?

  1. Ragi
  2. Jowar
  3. Groundnut
  4. Sugarcane

Ans. (4) Sugarcane

(v) In which of the following group of countries of the world, HYVs of wheat and rice were developed?

  1. Japan and Australia
  2. U.S.A. and Japan
  3. Mexico and Philippines
  4. Mexico and Singapore

Ans. (3) Mexico and Philippines

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Differentiate between barren and wasteland and culturable wasteland.

Ans. Barren and waste land- The land which cannot be used for cultivation is called barren land such as hilly terrains,desert,ravines.The barren land covers all barren and uncultivated lands in mountains and hill slopes, deserts and rocky areas. These areas cannot be brought under plough except at high input cost with possible low returns. The largest amount of land in this category is in Andhra Pradesh followed by Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Culturable wasteland- The “wasteland survey and reclamation committee” defines “culturable waste” as the land available for cultivation but not used for cultivation for one reason or the other. This land was used in the past but has been abandoned for some reason. It is not being used at present due to such constraints as lack of water, salinity or alkalinity of soil, soil erosion, water-logging, an unfavourable physiographic position, or human neglect.

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana as well as in several other parts of the country were used for agriculture in the past but had to be abandoned due to some deficiencies in the soil resulting from faulty agricultural practices.

(ii) How would you distinguish between net sown area and gross cropped area?

Ans.Net Sown area is the total area sown with crops in a country. Area sown more than once is counted once only.This area has a special significance in an agricultural country like India because agricultural production largely depends upon this type of land.

Gross Cropped Area (GCA) is the total area sown once as well as more than once in a particular year. When the crop is sown on a piece of land for twice, the area is counted twice in GCA.

(iii) Why is the strategy of increasing cropping intensity important in a country like India?

Ans. The strategy of increasing cropping intensity is important in a country like India because-

1. To increase the production of foodgrains for the increasing population and to meet out the demand of raw materials for the agro-based industries.

2. A higher cropping intensity is desirable not only fuller utilisation of land resources but also for reducing unemployment in the rural areas.

(iv) How do you measure total cultivable land?

Ans. Total cultivable land can be measured by adding up net sown area, all fallow lands and cultivable wasteland.

(v) What is the difference between dryland and wetland farming?

Ans.Dry farming is an improved system of cultivation in which maximum amount of moisture is conserved in low and untimely rainfall for the production of optimum Quantities of crop on economic and sustames basis.Dryland farming takes place in the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. These regions grow hardy and drought resistant crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar (fodder crops) and practise various measures of soil moisture conservation and rainwater harvesting.

In wetland farming, the rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirement of plants during rainy season. Such regions may face flood and soil erosion hazards. These areas grow various water intensive crops such as rice, jute and sugarcane and practise aquaculture in the fresh water bodies.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) What are the different types of environmental problems of land resources in India?

Ans. Different types of environmental problems of land resources in India are as follows:

  1. Soil erosion- Soil erosion removes valuable top soil which is the most productive part of the soil profile for agricultural purposes. The loss of this top soil results in lower yields and higher production costs.
  2. Water logging and salinisation-In water logged conditions, pore-voids in the soil get filled with water and soil-air gets depleted. In such a condition the roots of plants do not get enough air for respiration. Water logging also leads to low mechanical strength of soil and low crop yield.Salinity is often associated with prolonged wetness and lack of surface cover and therefore increases the vulnerability of soils to erosion.
  3. Alkanisation of land-The chemical fertilizers applied to accelerate production of crops kills the naturally occurring soil nutrients. Poor irrigation practices like irrigating with water that contains sodium bicarbonate leads to poor soil structure.
  4. Drought-Soil moisture, essential for soil microbial activities, is reduced in drought conditions. As a result, soil quality is lowered because of minimized organic activity and continued dry spell which kills soil organisms. The end result is dry and cracked soil and it even becomes easier for decertification to occur.

(ii) What are the important strategies for agricultural development followed in the post-independence period in India?
After Independence, the immediate goal of the Government was to increase foodgrains production by:

1. Land reform policy-The most important contribution of land reforms was abolition of intermediaries and giving land titles to the actual cultivators. This released productive forces and the owner cultivators put in their best to augment production on their holdings. Land reforms were important in increasing agricultural production. The Community Development Programme, decentralised planning and the Intensive Area Development programmes were also initiated for regenerating Indian agriculture that had stagnated during the British period. In order to encourage the farmers to adopt better technology,incentive price policy was adopted in 1964 and the Agricultural Price Commission was setup to advice the Government on the fixation of support prices of agricultural crop.

2. New agricultural strategy-In order to achieve the goal of self sufficiency in agriculture, new agricultural strategy has been initiated in 1966-67. The fundamental of this strategy is the application of science and technology for increasing yield per hectare. This strategy,known as New Agricultural Strategy or Green Revolution, is based on the extension of high yielding varieties responsive to heavy doses of fertilizers and the package of improved practices in selected areas with assured rainfall or irrigation facilities. The programmes included under the new strategy are: (1) the high yielding varieties programme, (2) multiple cropping programme, (3) integrated development of dry areas,(4) plant protection measures, (5) increased use of fertilizer (6)new irrigation concept.

3. Economic reforms- Economic reforms process involved deregulation, reduced government participation in economic activities, and liberalization. Although there is no any direct reforms for agriculture but the sector was affected indirectly by devaluation of exchange rate,liberalization of external trade and disprotection to industry. During this period opening up of domestic market due to new international trade accord and WTO was another change that affected agriculture. This raised new challenges among policymakers. Because of this, New Agricultural Policy was launched by Indian Government in July 2000. This aim to attain output growth rate of 4% per annum in agricultural sector based on efficient use of resources.

4. The Planning Commission of India initiated agro-climatic planning in 1988 to induce regionally balanced agricultural development in the country. It also emphasised the need for diversification of agriculture.

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Land Resources and Agriculture Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
How much part of total geographical area is cultivated ?

Question 2.
What is the percentage of fallow land ?

Question 3.
What is the average crop intensity in India ?

Question 4.
What is total production of food grains in India ?
2500 Lakh tonnes (2012).

Question 5.
What is the total production of Rice in India ?
1020 Lakh tonnes (2012).

Question 6.
What is total production of Wheat in India ?
840 Lakh tonnes (2012).

Question 7.
What is the total production of Tea in India ?
10 Lakh tonnes.

Question 8.
How much percent of population depends on agriculture for its livelihood ?
70 percent.

Question 9.
What is fallow land ?
A land which is not cultivated for 1 to 5 years.

Question 10.
Which state has the highest intensity of crops ?
Punjab, 189 percent.

Question 11.
State the formula to calculate cropping intensity. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
= Gross Cultivated Area  Net Sown Area ×100

Question 12.
Name the main cropping seasons of India.
Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.

Question 13.
Name the three crops of Rice grown in one year.
Aus, Aman and Boro.

Question 14.
Name the main types of Oil seeds grown in India.
Groundnut, rapeseed, mustard, soyabean and sunflower.

Question 15.
How much area is irrigated in India ?
570 lakh hectares.

Question 16.
Name the two most important cereal crops of India. Give the name of any two states which are the important producers of each of their crops.
Wheat and Rice are the two most important cereal crops of India.

Important Producers
(a) Wheat: Uttar Pradesh and Punjab
(b) Rice: Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.

Question 17.
Explain any three features of dryland farming in India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
(i) Dryland farming is practised in areas with less than 75 ems rainfall.
(ii) This type of farming grows hard and resistant crops.
(iii) This practices method of soil moisture conservation.

Question 18.
Name the leading state in the production of Jute in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
West Bengal.

Land Resources and Agriculture Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Distinguish between reporting area and geographical area.
The land use categories add up to reporting area, which is some what different from the geographical area. The Survey of India is responsible for measuring geographical area of administrative units in India. The reporting area is calculated on land revenue records. The difference between the two concepts is that while the former changes somewhat depending on the estimates of the land revenue records, the latter does not change.

Question 2.
Distinguish between actual forest cover and classified forests.
Actual forest cover is different from area classified as forest. The classified forest area is identified and demarcated by government for forest growth. But the actual forest cover is that area where forests are actually found.

Question 3.
State three facts to show the Agricultural development in India.
Agriculture continues to be an important sector of Indian eocnomy,
(i) In 2001, about 53 per cent population of the country was dependent on it.

(ii) The importance of agricultural sector in India can be gauged from the fact that about 57 per cen t of its land is devoted to crop cultivation, whereas, in the world, the corresponding share is only about 12 per cent.

(iii) In spite of this, there is tremendous pressure on agricultural land in India, which is reflected from the fact that the land-human ratio in the country is only 0.31 ha. which is almost half of that of the world as a whole (0.59 ha.).

Question 4.
Define Agriculture. Which conditions favour agriculture ?
Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the land, raising crops for food. It includes tilling of land, raising of crops, and cattle rearing. The term agriculture has been derived from two Latin words: ager meaning ‘land’ and cultura meaning ‘cultivation’. Agriculture thus means cultivation of
land and tending of animals.

Favourable conditions for Agriculture : All lands are not suitable for cultivation.

Physical conditions : For crop raising land must be level, covered with fertile soils and have adequate rainfall and favourable temperature.

Human conditions : How man uses land also depends on the technology, tenure and size of the holdings, government policies and several other infrastructural factors.

Question 5.
What is the net sown area in India ? Where does India rank in world ?
Land utilization statistics are available for 92.8 per cent of total geographical area (328.73 million hectares) of India. The net sown area is 140.3 million ha. in 2011-2012; it increased to 142.82 million ha. in 1996-97. Thus, about 46.59 per cent of the geographical area of the country is currently under cultivation as against only 36.1 per cent in 1950-51. About 23.2 million hectares are classified as fallow lands which constitute 7.6 per cent of the reported area.

Thus, India has more than half of the total area under cultivation. It is pertinent to note that India stands seventh in the world in terms of total geographical area but second in terms of cultivated land. The first being the LTnited States of America, which is two and a half times larger than India in land area.

Question 6.
Describe three main achievements of the Green Revolution in India.
(i) It has led to a substantial increase in production and productivity of foodgrains increasing from 72 million tonnes (1965-66) to 210 million tonnes (2003-04).
(ii) Import of foodgrains declined from 10.3 million tonnes (1965-66) to 2.4 million tonnes in 1983-84. There was no import of food grains in 2000-01.
(iii) The croppd area, use of high yielding varities, the yield per hectare use of irrigation and fertilisers has increased.

Question 7.
Why is agricultural productivity still low in India ? Write three main reasons.
In India, the yield per hectare of foodgrains and other crops is low. The main reasons lare:
(i) Less use of HYV. Only 16% of the cultivated land is under HYV.
(ii) Poor technique. The fertility of soils is declining. Use of fertilisers and pesticides is limited.
(iii) Low investment. Poor farmers cannot invest in agriculture. Size of farms is small.

Question 8.
Describe any three haraeteristies of wetland farming in India. (2013)
(i) In wetland farming, rainfall is more than 75 cms.
(ii) These grow various water intensive crops such as Rice, Jute, etc.
(iii) Rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirements of plants.

Question 9.
Classify land according to its ownership. State the characteristics of common property sources. Why are common property resource called natural resources ?
Land, according to its ownership can broadly be classified under two broad heads—
(i) private land and
(ii) common property resources (CPRs). While the former is owned by an individual or a group of individuals, the latter is owned by the state meant for the use of the community. CPRs provide fodder for the livestock and fuel for the households along with other minor forest products like fruits, nuts, fibre, medicinal plants, etc.

In rural areas, such land is of particular relevance for the livelihood of the landless and marginal farmers and other weaker sections since many of them depend on income from their livestock due to the fact that they have limited access to land. CPRs also are important for women as most of the fodder and fuel collection is done by them in rural areas. They have to devote long hours in collecting fuel and fodder from a degraded area of CPR.

Natural Resources. CPRs can be defined as community’s natural resource, where every member has the right of access and usage with specified obligations, without anybody having property rights over them. Community forests, pasture lands, village water bodies and other public spaces where a group larger than a household or family unit exercises rights of use and carries responsibility of management are examples of CPRs.

Question 10.
What is the importance of land resources ? State three facts.
Land resource is more crucial to the livelihood of the people depending on agriculture :
(i) Agriculture is a purely land based activity unlike secondary and tertiary activities. In other words, contribution of land in agricultural output is more compared to its contribution in the outputs in the other sectors. Thus, lack of access to land is directly correlated with incidence of poverty in rural areas.

(ii) Quality of land has a direct bearing on the productivity of agriculture, which is not true for other activities.

(iii) In rural areas, aside from its value as a productive factor, land ownership has a social value and serves as a security for credit, natural hazards or life contingencies, and also adds to the social status.

Question 11.
‘Scope for bringing in additional land under net sown area in India is limited.’ Discuss. How can we increase cultivated land ?
It may be observed that over the years, there has been a marginal decline in the available total stock of cultivable land as a percentage to total reporting area. There has been a greater decline of cultivated land, in spite of a corresponding decline of cultivable wasteland. It is clear that the scope for bringing in additional land under net sown area in India is limited.

There is, thus an urgent need to evolve and adopt land-saving technologies. Such technologies can be classified under two heads—those which raise the yield of any particular crop per unit area of land and those which increase the total output per unit area of land from all crops grown over one agricultural year by increasing land-use intensity.

The advantage of the latter kind of technology is that along with increasing output from limited land, it also increases the demand for labour significantly. For a land scarce but labour abundant country like India, a high cropping intensity is desirable not only for fuller utilisation of land resource, but also for reducing unemployment in the rural economy.

Question 12.
Describe the different cropping seasons in India. Name the crops grown in each season. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Cropping Seasons in India
There are three distinct crop seasons in the northern and interior parts of country, namely kharif, rabi and zaid.
(1) The kharif season largely coincides with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur is possible.

(2) The rabi season begins with the onset of winter in October-November and ends in March-April. The low temperature conditions during this season facilitate the cultivation of temperate and subtropical crops such as wheat, gram and mustard.

(3) Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of rabi crops. The cultivation of watermelons, cucumbers, vegetables and fodder crops during this season is done on irrigated lands.

Question 13.
Distinguish between wetland farming and dryland farming.
Rainfed farming is further classified on the basis of adequacy of soil moisture during cropping season into dryland and wetland farming. In India, the dryland farming is largely confined to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. These regions grow hardy and drought resistant crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar (fodder crops) and practise various measures of soil moisture conservation and rain water harvesting.

In wetland farming, the rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirement of plants during rainy season. Such regions may face flood and soil erosion hazards. These areas grow various water intensive crops such as rice, jute and sugarcane and practise aquaculture in the fresh water bodies.

Question 14.
Distinguish between Protective irrigated farming and Productive irrigated farming.
Distinguish between Protective Irrigation and Productive Irrigation. (Outside Delhi 2019)
On the basis of main source of moisture for crops, the farming can be classified as irrigated and rainfed (barani). There is difference in the nature of irrigated farming as well based on objective of irrigation, i.e. protective or productive. The objective of protective irrigation is to protect the crops from adverse effects of soil moisture deficiency which often means that irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water over and above the rainfall.

The strategy of this kind of irrigation is to provide soil moisture to maximum possible area. Productive irrigation is meant to provide sufficient soil moisture in the cropping season to achieve high productivity. In such irrigation the water input per unit area of cultivated land is higher than protective irrigation.

Question 15.
Name the major oil seeds grown in India. Also state the major areas of production.
The oilseeds are produced for extracting edible oils. Drylands of Malwa plateau, Marathwada, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Telangana and Rayalseema region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka plateau are oilseeds growing regions of India. These crops together occupy about 14 per cent of total cropped area in the country. Groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, soyabean and sunflower are the main oilseed crops grown in India.

Question 16.
(i) What is intensity of cropping ?
(ii) Explain four factors affecting it.
(iii) Give two reasons for high index of intensity of cropping in Punjab.
Intensity of cropping means the number of crops raised on the same field in one agricultural year. If two crops are grown in a year, the index of cropping is 200. It shows intensive use of the land. Intensity of cropping is influenced by the following factors:

  • Irrigation facilities
  • Use of fertilisers
  • Use of high yielding varieties
  • Mechanisation
  • Use of pesticides.

The intensity of cropping in Punjab is due to high inputs. There is heavy application of fertilisers. A large area is under irrigation and mechanised farming. High yielding varieties are grown.

Question 17.
Distinguish between crop rotation, crop intensity and mixed cropping.
Crop rotation means the cultivation of different crops in the same field year after year. The change of crops helps to maintain the fertility of the fields. Crop intensity means the number of crops grown on the same field in the agricultural year. Mixed cropping refers to the practice of sowing two to three crops together in the same field in one crop season.

Question 18.
What does the term dry farming mean ?
Dry farming is an agricultural method practised in areas where rainfall is scanty (less than 50 cms). In such regions, irrigation facilities are also not available. In this method, deep ploughing is done after every rain to preserve most of the rain water. In such areas, one crop is grown in a year. Generally, drought resisting crops like wheat, cotton, gram and pulses are grown. In India, dry farming is practised in arid areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana.

Question 19.
What do you mean by fallow land ? How can we reduce the period of fallowing ?
Continuous cropping in the same field for a long period results in the depletion of soil-nutrients. In order to provide time for the recoupment of the soil fertility, land is kept without crop for a season or a year. The soil fertility increases through this natural process. When land is left without crop for a season it is called current fallow land. It is called old fallow land if it is left without crop for a period of more than one year. The extent of fallowing may be reduced by higher dose of fertilizer and manure.

Question 20.
Which are the two important staple food crops of India ? Give three points of contrast in the climatic and soil requirements of the two crops named by you.
Wheat and rice are the two staple crops. Wheat needs cool wet growing season and warm dry harvesting season, but rice needs high temperature throughout. Wheat needs moderate rainfall. Rice needs high rainfall. Loamy soils are best suited for wheat, while rice is grown on alluvial soils.

Question 21.
Describe lancUuse pattern in ndia. C.B.S.E. 2011)
Land-use pattern. Land is a limited resource. Attempts are made to make the maximum use of land. India has a total geographical area of 32.8 crore hectares. Main characteristics of land-use are as under:
(a) Net Sown area. About 54% of total land (7.6 crore hectares) is net sown area. This vast area shows the importance of agriculture in India.

(b) Fallow land. About 7% land (2.4 crore hectares) is left as fallow land and is cultivated after two or three years.

(c) Forests. About 23% of land is (6.6 crore hectares) under forests.

(d) Plantation crops. About 1% land is under plantation crops like tea, coffee, etc.

(e) Other uses. Land under permanent grassland, cultivable waste and not available for cultivation amounts to about 5 crore hectares. Area under forests is increasing. Fallow land has been reduced in area. Net sown area under doubled cropped area is also increasing.

Question 22.
What is crop rotation ? Why has this method been adopted ?
When the different crops are sown turn by turn in the same field; it is called crop rotation. For example: Pulses, Legumes and Oilseeds are grown in the same field after harvesting food crops. This is helpful in correcting the imbalance of the soil nutrients.

Same crop year after year accelerates the loss of soil nutrients. Legumes have the utility of fixing nitrogen of the soil from atmosphere. Oilseeds also fix nitrogen. Highly fertilizer intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereal crops. Selection of the crops for rotation depends upon the local soil conditions and the experience of the farmers.

Question 23.
Explain the importance of agriculture in Indian economy.
India is an agricultural country. Agriculture is not only the backbone of Indian economy, but also a way of living in India. Agriculture provides work to about 70 per cent of the total work force of the country. It contributes 35 per cent of the net national product. It provides food for hillions of people of the country. About 20 crore herds of cattle get fodder.

Agriculture provides raw materials to agro-based industries like cotton textiles, sugarcane, etc. It also contributes a sizeable share of the country, total exports—by earning a foreign exchange of about ? 5000 crores which accounts for about 70% on total exports. Agriculture provides base for development of other sectors. It ensures higher purchasing power in rural areas. It generates demand for industrial goods.

Question 24.
How did Green Revolution bring about ‘grain revolution’ in some parts of India ?
Since the 1960s, a new strategy has been used for the intensive agricultural development in India. It has led to a rapid increase in the production of foodgrains in the country. A revolution has taken place in the agricultural methods and technology. This revolution is known as Green Revolution. It includes the use of better quality seeds, high yielding varieties, chemical fertilisers, agricultural machinery and to provide irrigation facilities. It has led to a complete modernisation of Indian agriculture.

This strategy was introduced to do away with food shortage and import of foodgrains. In 1965, the total production of foodgrains was 90 million tonnes. It became essential to increase the cropped area total production and yield per hectare. Wonderful results were achieved through Green Revolution. The total production of foodgrains in 2015-2016 has increased to above 280 million tonnes. In fact, Green Revolution has been a grain revolution.

It is clear from the following table :

YearFoodgrains production (Million tonnes)
1970 – 71108.4
1980 – 81129.6
1990 – 91176.4
2000 – 01196.8
2006 – 07217.3
2009 – 10218.1
2015 – 16280.0

The adoption of Green Revolution has given a boost to agricultural development in many aspects such as:
(i) The chopped area has increased due to multiple cropping.

(ii) The use of high yielding varieties of wheat and rice like Kalyan, S-308, Jaya, Ratna, etc. have led to increased yields per hectare. The yield of wheat rose from 13 quintal per hectare to 33 quintals per hectare in Punjab. In case of rice, a 45% increase in productivity was obtained in Andhra Pradesh.

(iii) The use of extensive irrigation increased the total production of foodgrains.

(iv) Use of chemical fertilisers led to higher yield per hectare.

(v) Massive programme of farm mechanisation, use of better quality seeds and pesticides, use of agricultural implements has led to the success of Green Revolution.

Question 25.
Review any five measures adopted to solve the problems of Indian agriculture.
Agriculture is a very important sector of Indian economy. In spite of the phenomenal progress particularly since the 1960s, Indian agriculture still suffers from several serious problems, such as :

(1) Dependence on Erratic Monsoon : Unfortunately, most parts of the India receive rainfall in 3 – 4 months of the rainy season and rest of the year is practically dry, large (parts) of the country do not receive sufficient amount of rainfall. Such areas can give high agricultural productivity if sufficient arrangements for irrigation and water harvesting are made.

(2) Low Productivity : Yields of almost all the crops in India is very low. High pressure of population results in low labour productivity. We have to use HYV seeds and fertilizes to increase the productivity.

(3) Small Farm Size: Small land holdings is major obstacle in the way of modernisation of agriculture. These are some states where consolidation of holding has not yet been carried out even once.

(4) Lack of Commercialisation : Indian agriculture is still of subsistence type. Foodgrains produced by small and marginal farmers are just sufficient to meet the requirement of the family members of the farmers. Irrigation and modern farm techniques has spread to the country at a rapid pace.

(5) Lack of development of rural infrastructure, withdrawal of subsidies and price support and crop rotation etc., reduce the regional imbalances if these implement properly.

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