Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities N.C.E.R.T. Textbook Questions Solved
C.B.S.E. Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Question Answer
C.B.S.E. Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Part 1 Question Answer
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following is a tertiary activity?
Ans.. (2) Trading
(ii) Which of the following activities is NOT a secondary sector?
- Iron smelting
- Catching fish
- Making garments
- Basket weaving
Ans. (2) Catching fish
(iii) Which one of the following sectors provides most of the employment in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata?
Ans. (4) Service
(iv) Jobs that involve high degrees and levels of innovation are known as:
- Secondary activities
- Quaternary activities
- Quinary activities
- Primary activities
Ans. (2) Quaternary activities
(v) Which of the following activities is related to the quaternary sector?
- Manufacturing activities
- Paper and raw pulp production
- University teaching
- Printing books
Ans. (3) University teaching
(vi) Which one of the following statements is not true?
- Outsourcing reduces costs and increases efficiency.
- At times engineering and manufacturing jobs can also be outsourced.
- B.P.O.s have better business opportunities as compared to K.P.O.s.
- There may be dissatisfaction among job seekers in the countries that outsource the job.
Ans. (4) There may be dissatisfaction among job seekers in the countries that outsource the job.
2. Answer the following question in about 30 words.
(i) Explain retail trading services.
Ans. Retail trading services: The business activity is concerned with selling goods directly to consumers. Most of the retail trading takes place in the fixed establishment or stores solely devoted to selling activity. But it may also take place as street peddling, handicrafts, trucks, door to door, mail order, telephone, automatic vending machines and internet, etc.
The benefits of retail trade are numerous and varied. Consumers have greater choices and inventory to choose from as well as competitive pricing. Retail trade allows consumers to build relationships with businesses and acquire the items they need quickly. Disadvantages come in for small-scale retailers who struggle to compete with their larger competitors in terms of product assortment and pricing.
(ii) Describe quaternary services.
Ans. Quaternary services refer to intellectual occupations which are advanced and specialised, such as thinking, research and developing new ideas. In other words, quaternary activities centre around research and development and are the advanced services stage involving specialised knowledge, technical skills, and administrative competence. It is based on knowledge and skill. It consists of intellectual industries providing information services, such as computing, information and communication technologies, consultancy and R&D.
(iii) Name the fast-emerging countries of medical tourism in the world.
Ans. Medical tourism is also an important part of quinary activities. Nearly 55,000 patients from the U.S.A. visited India in 2005 for treatment. India has emerged as the leading country in medical tourism in the world. Hospitals in India, Switzerland and Australia have been providing such services.
(iv) What is the digital divide?
Ans. A digital divide is an economic and social inequality about access to, use, or impact of information and communication technologies. The term digital divide describes terms of access to and usage of information and communication technology. This technology can include the telephone, television, personal computer and the internet.
It typically exists between those in cities and rural areas, between the educated and the uneducated, between socioeconomic groups, and, globally, between the more and less industrially developed nations. Even among populations with access to technology, the digital divide can be evident in the form of lower-performance computers, lower-speed wireless connections, lower-priced connections such as dial-up and limited access to subscription-based content. According to recent studies and reports, the digital divide is still very much a reality today. A June 2013 U.S. White House broadband report, for example, showed that only 71% of American homes had adopted broadband, a figure lower than in other countries with comparable gross domestic product.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) Discuss the significance and growth of the service sector in modern economic development.
Ans. Significance of the service sector in modern economic development-
Significances of this sector are listed below:
(i) Share in Net National Product: The service sector currently contributes the maximum share of the country’s net national product at factor cost (national income). According to 2000-01, 48.5 % of national income comes from the service sector, and 22.9% of the total working population is employed in this sector.
(ii) Helps Industrialisation: The development of industries is dependent on the performance and improvement of transport, communication, electricity, banking etc., in a country. The transport system helps carry raw materials, finished goods and labourers to their required destination. Communication helps to widen the market of industrial goods. Electricity and banking services help to flourish the industries in remote areas.
(iii) Expands Agriculture: The service sector helps to develop agricultural production by providing better network facilities. It helps carry raw materials and finished goods from one place to another.
(iv) Removes Regional Imbalances: This sector provides a well-organised transport and communication service. It also provides good banking services and an expansion of education and medical facilities in the country’s backwards regions. Thus it helps to wipe out the problem of regional imbalances and disparities within the country.
(v) Growth of Market: This sector provides different types of services to both agriculture and industrial sectors. Thu: in another way, it helps to grow the good markets for both agricultural and industrial goods finished goods and raw materials or semi-finished goods.
(vi) High Quality of Life: Better services in transport and communication, banking and insurance, education and health etc. must help a country to pave the path for economic development by increasing the quality of life or standard of living within the country. It also helps to improve the value of the HDI (Human Development Index) of a country.
(vii) Increase Productivity: This sector helps the working force by providing sufficient technical education and medical facilities. Moreover, a well-organised network of transport and communication systems increases the mobility and information among the workers. All these make the labourer more skilful and efficient. Thus the productivity (producing capacity of a labourer) will increase simultaneously.
(viii) Rise in International Trade: A well-developed service sector, especially transport, communication banking etc., helps to expand international trade. Hence, it will also help increase the country’s foreign exchange reserve.
Growth of the service sector in modern economic development-
Services constitute over 50% of G.D.P. in low-income countries. As their economies continue to develop, the importance of services in the economy continues to grow. The service economy is also key to growth, for instance, it accounted for 47% of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 2000–2005. This means that recent economic growth in Africa relies as much on services as on natural resources or textiles, despite many of those countries benefiting from trade preferences in primary and secondary goods. As a result, employment is also adjusting to the changes and people are leaving the agricultural sector to find work in the service economy. This job creation is particularly useful as often it provides employment for low-skilled labour in the tourism and retail sectors, thus benefiting the poor in particular and representing an overall net increase in employment.
The export potential of many of these products is already well understood, e.g. in tourism, financial services and transport, however, new opportunities are arising in other sectors, such as the health sector. For example:
- Indian companies that provide scanning services for U.S. hospitals
- South Africa is developing a market for surgery and tourism packages
- India, the Philippines, South Africa and Mauritius have experienced rapid growth in I.T. services, such as call centres, back-office functions and software development.
(ii) Explain in detail the significance of transport and communication services.
Ans. Transport and communication occupy an important place in the economic and social development of a country.
Importance of Transport: A country cannot develop so fast without a developed transport system. The development of roads facilitates, the utilisation of natural resources that are lying unutilised in different hills, mountains, forests and mines. The transport system helps to send raw materials, fuel and machinery to different industries at right time and runs the industry.
The transport system helps to raise the production of raw materials, fuels and machinery, etc. by providing a market for it. The transport system widens the size of the market. Due to the selling of commodities in an extensive manner in large areas, it leads to large-scale production. As result, the industry of the firm gets the advantages of large-scale production.
A developed transport system reduces regional industrial disparity by facilitating the establishment of industries in backward areas because the backward area is brought nearer to developed areas with the help of a developed transport system by sending raw materials to the backward industrial centre and by selling the products of industries in different areas.
The transport system helps to solve the problem of unemployment in rural areas by sending surplus labourers to the industries and it also solves the needs of industries. Development of transport system also leads to the development of industries because transport system utilises the product of industries.
Different types of machinery and raw materials are supplied through roads, ships, motors, buses, trains, and aeroplanes to industries. It shows that the transport system of a country affects the economic development of a country in a different manner.
The transport system is regarded as a strong pillar to protect the people from the difficulties of war, natural calamities and other problems. transfer of military equipment, soldiers and warheads is possible only through a developed transport system during the war. A developed transport system is necessary to send necessary helps to the affected people during the period of natural calamities.
Besides this, the transport system helps to establish relationships among different parts of the people and strengthens the feeling of unity and brotherhood among the people. Lastly, it makes India one and undivided.
Importance of Communication: Communication is the medium of sending information and news. Communication system helps industrialists and business communities to make the right decisions at right time by providing them with information and news related to business and financial matters. It is possible to know about the price of the commodity prevailing in any part of the world in no time and also helps to operate their business according to that through the communication system.
So, the Communication system facilitates economic development by sending information. It is possible to change the outlook and style of living of the people according to changing conditions of the world.
N.C.E.R.T. Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
C.B.S.E. Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
N.C.E.R.T. Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
C.B.S.E. Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
N.C.E.R.T. Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Which two elements are included in tertiary activities?
Production and exchange.
What is trade?
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere.
Name two types of trade.
Retail trade and wholesale trade.
Name two types of trading centres.
Rural and urban.
What are Quasi urban centres ?
Rural marketing centres.
What are mandis ?
State four examples of retail trading service ?
Street peddling, handcarts, mail-order and door to door.
Information Communication Technologies.
What are Isochrone lines ?
Isochrone lines are drawn on a map to join places equal in terms of the time taken to reach them.
Which is the fastest means of communication ?
Mobile Technology and Satellites.
What are modes of Mass media ?
Radio and Television.
Name three services involving mental labour.
Teacher, lawyers and physicians.
Central Business District.
Which industries are fostered by Tourism ?
Infrastructure industries, Retail trading and Craft industries.
Name two tourist regions of the world.
(i) Mediterranean coast
(ii) Goa coast.
What are entrepreneurs ?
These are empowered workers which believe in self-actualisation and not wealth. They believe in value system, quality of life and creativity.
Analyse the development of service sector as an outcome of improvement in transport and communication.
(Sample Paper 2018-19)
The service sector includes important services such as transportation and communication. Improvement in these services play an important role for integrated and facilitates economic development and growth.
Give two examples of high service.
Finance and insurance.
Give one example of a global city.
What is the importance of secondary activities in the world ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials to valuable products.
What was the initial form of trade in primitive society? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The initial form of trade in the primitive society was the barter system. In this, the direct exchange of goods takes place without the use of money.
Define the term ‘tertiary (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Activities related to the service sector.
Give the meaning of retail. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Business activity is concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumer.
Write the meaning of Trading centres’. (Delhi 2019)
From around the globe the international trade centres bring together business.
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is trade? What is its aim? What are trading centres? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere. It is of two types. Wholesale and Retail trade. The trade services are intended for profit. All this work takes place in towns and cities and is known as trading centres (Rural and Urban).
What are Periodic markets?
In rural areas, local periodic markets are organised. These may be weekly or bi-weekly. People from surrounding areas meet their demands from it. These markets move from one place to another. Thus shopkeepers serve a large area on all days.
Describe the different types of stores. (C.B.S.E. 2017)
(i) Consumer co-operatives. These provide large-scale retailing.
(ii) Departmental stores. Heads of each department purchase and sells commodities.
(iii) Chain stores. These experiments sale of goods in one store and apply the results to other stores.
What is Transport Service? Why is it necessary?
Transport is a service by which persons, manufactured goods and property are physically carried from one location to another. It is necessary to satisfy man’s basic need for mobility. It is necessary to have a speedy and efficient transport system.
Describe any three characteristics of chain stores in the world. (C.B.S.E. Outside 2017)
The use of telecommunications finked to the development of electrical technology. It carries the messages with great speed. The time reduced is from weeks to minutes. Mobile telephones can send communications direct and instantaneously at any time and from anywhere.
What are the means of mass media? Explain its different types.
Radio and television also help to relay news, picture and telephone calls to vast audiences around the world and hence they are termed mass media. Its functions:
- They are vital for advertising and entertainment.
- Newspapers are able to cover events in all corners of the world
- Satellite communication relays information of the earth and from space
- The internet has truly revolutionised the global communication system.
What is an unorganised sector of services? What do you know about Mumbai’s Dabbawala?
Unskilled workers migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment. They are employed in domestic services as housekeepers, cooks, and gardeners and are called the unorganised sectors. In India, Mumbai’s Dabbawala (Tiffin) service provides about 1,75,000 customers all over the city.
What is the basis of Quarternary services? Which activities are involved in these ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The knowledge-based sector is called Quartemary services. It involves three processes.
- dissemination of information.
What are Quinary activities? Give examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009)(Sample Paper 2018-19)
Quinary activities focus on the creative, re-arrangement of new and existing ideas, data interpretation and use of evaluation of new technologies. That is one highest levels of decision-makers. These are referred as Gold Collar professions. They have special and highly paid skills of senior business executives research scientists and financial consultants.
How does the climate of a region attract tourists? Explain with examples from different regions of the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Influence of climate in tourism.
(i) Most people expect to have warm, sunny weather for beach holidays. This is one of the main reasons for the importance of tourism in South Europe.
(ii) The Mediterranean climate offers almost consistently high temperatures, long hours of sunshine and low rainfall throughout the peak holiday seasons.
(iii) People taking winter holidays have specific climate requirements, either the highest temperatures at home or snow suitable for skiing Mediterranean region is called the ‘Playground of Europe’.
Distinguish between rural marketing centres and urban marketing centres.
Rural marketing centres. These centres cater to nearby settlements. These are Quasi-urban centres. Here personal and professional services are not well developed. These form local collecting and distributing centres. Most of these have Mandis and also retailing centres. These supply goods demanded by rural folk. Periodic markets are held here—(weekly or bi-weekly).
Urban Marketing centres. These provide urban services. These supply specialised goods and services. These sell manufactured goods. Markets for labour, housing, and semi-finished goods are held. These provide services of education, teachers, lawyers, consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary doctors.
What do you know about medical services for overseas patients?
Medical Services for Overseas Patients in India. About 55,000 patients from the U.S.A. visited India in 2005 for treatment. This is still a small number compared with the millions of surgeries performed each year in the $2 trillion U.S. healthcare system. India has emerged as the leading country in medical tourism in the world.
World-class hospitals located in the Metropolitan cities and Vellore cater to patients all over the world. Medical tourism brings abundant benefits to developing countries like India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.
Describe the major components of services.
The major components of services may broadly be grouped as the following :
(i) Business Services include advertising, legal services, public relations, and consulting.
(ii) Finance, insurance and real estate include savings and investment banking, insurance and real estate (commercial as well as residential).
(iii) Wholesale and retail trading link the producers with consumers. Personal services such as maintenance services, beauticians and repair work are included in this.
(iv) Transport and communications include railways, roadways, shipping and airline services and post and telegraph services.
(v) Entertainment includes television, radio, film, publishing and lodging.
(vi) Government at different levels—local, state and national includes bureaucracies, police and army, and other public services.
(vii) Non-governmental agencies include those organisations which have been set up by individuals or groups for charity or non profit social activities concerning education, healthcare, environment, rural development, etc.
Discuss the nature and growth of Quarternary services in the world.
‘The Modern Economic development in the world is the result of the development of quarternary services, Justify the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2014) (C.B.S.E. 2011)’.(Sample Paper 2)
Evaluate the importance of quarternary activities. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Economic activities have become much more specialised and complex. As a result, quarternary activities have come into use now. Activities concerning knowledge, education, information, research and development (R & D) are recognised as quarternary activities or services.
Main Characteristics :
- The term quaternary basically refers to the more intellectual occupations.
- Their task is to think, research and develop ideas.
- As such, this sector is especially concerned with research and development.
- In the most economically and advanced nations, the quarternary activities involve a small but growing proportion of the population.
- These people have the highest incomes and a higher degree of mobility in the process of career advancement.
Growth of Quarternary Activities :
In recent years, a revolution in information technology has given rise to knowledge-based industries. There has been a remarkable growth in the science and technology-based industrial complexes called Science and Technological parks.