Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Transport and Communication Question Answer NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part A – Fundamentals of Human Geography Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Transport and Communication Question Answer
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) The Trans-Continental Stuart Highway runs between
- Darwin and Melbourne
- Edmonton and Anchorage
- Vancouver and St. John’s City
- Chengdu and Lhasa
Ans. (1) Darwin and Melbourne
(ii) Which country has the highest density of railway network?
Ans. (2) U.S.A.
(iii) The Big Trunk Route runs through
- The Mediterranean-Indian ocean
- The North Atlantic Ocean
- The South Atlantic Ocean
- The North Pacific Ocean
Ans. (2) The North Atlantic Ocean
(iv) The Big Inch pipeline transports
- Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
Ans. (4) Petroleum
(v) Which one pair of the following places is linked by Channel Tunnel?
Ans. (2) Paris-London
2. Answer the following question in about 30 words.
(i) What are the problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and flood prone regions?
Ans. The problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and floor prone regions are explained below:
- It is difficult to construct roads in mountainous regions. It is expensive to construct and maintain roads in these areas. Due to earthquake and landslides, roads get damaged and heavy expenditure has to be incurred for their maintenance.
- In deserts, constructing roads is difficult due to dusty soil.
- In flood prone areas roads get badly damaged and have to be reconstructed year by year.
(ii) What is a trans-continental railway?
Ans. A transcontinental railway is a contagious network of railroad trackage that crosses a continental land mass with terminals at different oceans or continental borders. Such networks can be via the tracks of either a single railroad, or over those owned or controlled by multiple railway companies along a continuous route.
Transcontinental railroads helped open up unpopulated interior regions of continents to exploration and settlement that would not otherwise have been feasible. In many cases they also formed the backbones of cross-country passenger and freight transportation networks.
(iii) What are the advantages of water transport?
Ans. There are many advantages of water transport:
1. Low Cost: Rivers are a natural highway which does not require any cost of construction and maintenance. Even the cost of construction and maintenance of canals is much less or they are used, not only for transport purposes but also for irrigation, etc. Moreover, the cost of operation of the inland water transport is very low. Thus, it is the cheapest mode of transport for carrying goods from one place to another.
2. Larger Capacity: It can carry much larger quantities of heavy and bulky goods such as coal, and, timber etc. 3. Flexible Service: It provides much more flexible service than railways and can be adjusted to individual requirements. 4. Safety: The risks of accidents and breakdowns, in this form of transport, are minimum as compared to any other form of transport.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) Elucidate the statement- “In a well-managed transport system, various modes complement each other”.
Ans.Different modes of transportation are not competitive but complementary in nature. All of them have their own importance in specific situations. It can be understood by some examples:
- When heavy machinery is to be imported from other countries then no other means of transportation can be as helpful as water transport.
- When urgent telegrams are to be delivered abroad, then air transport is most useful.
- If a middle class person wants to visit his family at a distant place within his own country, the uses of railways are most suitable. Even when raw material is to be transported from distant place railways play a major role.
- No matter which modes of transport we use in the middle stage but from your doorstep to your destination there is only road transport which can help you. Ultimately once we get down from train or aeroplane or ship we make use of road transport to reach our final destination.
- When light weight high value goods are to be delivered then air transport proves better than others.
- Similarly for crossing mountains trolley is most suitable. Road and railways are nowhere successful in this scenario.
- Anything for which door to door service is required only road transport can be used.
- If liquefied petroleum or other liquids are to be transported then pipelines prove better than all other means of transport.
Therefore, it may be concluded that different modes of transport are not competitive but complementary to each other.
(ii) Which are the major regions of the world having a dense network of airways?
Ans. In the northern hemisphere, there is distinct east west belt of intercontinental air routes. Dense networks exist in Eastern USA, Western Europe and South East Asia.
- The USA alone accounts for 60% of the airways of the world. New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt Rome, Moscow, Karachi, New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago are the nodal points where air routes converge or radiate to all continents.
- Africa, Asiatic part of Russia and South America are lacking in air services. Between 10 to 35 latitude in southern hemisphere, air services are lacking due to:
- Sparser population;
- Limited landmass and
- Economic development
- At present, no pace in the world is more than 35 hours away. This startling fact has been made possible due to people who build any fly airplanes.
- Today more than 250 commercial airlines offer regular services to different parts of the world.
- Recent development can change the future course of air transport. Supersonic aircraft cover the distance between London and New York within three and a half hours.
(iii) What are the modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans?
Ans. The modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social spaces of humans are e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance.
(i)E-mail- It is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronics. Email has been widely accepted by business, governments and non-governmental organizations in the developed world, and it is one of the key parts of an ‘e-revolution’ in workplace communication.E-mail by its nature creates a detailed written record of the communication, the identity of the sender(s) and recipient(s) and the date and time the message was sent. In the event of a contract or legal dispute, saved emails can be used to prove that an individual was advised of certain issues, as each email has the date and time recorded on it.
(ii) E-commerce-It is a transaction of buying or selling online. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic fund transfer, supply chain management, internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange, inventory management system, and automated data collection system.
(iii) E-learning- It is a learning environment which uses information and communication technologies as a platform for teaching and learning activities. E-learning has its root in distance learning and is part of the revolution brought by the new media: the Web. Educators and trainers soon found the potentials to advance learning at the advent of the new Web technologies. The advocates of e-learning voice for the breakdown of barriers to learning (especially for adult learners in higher education) such as the limitations in time and distance. Research on media comparison “proves” that there is no difference in the learning outcome of e-learning from traditional face-to-face instruction. Over time, more and more instructors/institutions are incorporating e-learning components in the practice of instruction in higher education as a way of facilitating learning.
(iv) E-governance- It is the application of information and communication technology for delivering government services, exchange of information,communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interaction within the entire government framework.Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and businesses/interest groups.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
When and where was the first railway line opened?
First public railway line was opened in 1825 between Stockton and Darlington (England).
What is the length of total motorable roads in world ?
15 million kms.
Which two towns are connected by Transcanadian highway ?
Vancouver (British Columbia) and St. John (New foundland)
Why is West Asia the least developed in rail facilities ? Explain one reason.
West Asia is the least developed in rail facilities because of sparsely populated and Vast deserts.
Which highway connects Darwin and Melbourne ? (C.B.S.E. 2018) !
The Trans-Continental Stuart Highway.
Which towns are connected by a new highway constructed in China and Tibet ?
Chengdu with Lhasa.
Which country has the largest rail network in Africa ?
South Africa has largest rail network in Africa continent.
In which countries, commuter trains are popular ?
In U.K, U.S.A., Japan and India, millions of passengers daily move to and for in the city by commuter trains.
Which country has the highest rail- density ?
Belgium-1 km of railway for every 6.5 sq. km.
Which Tunnel connects London and Paris
Channel Tunnel operated by Euro Tunnel group.
Name a trans-continental railway of South America through which pass does it run.
Trans Andean Railway connecting Valparaiso (Chile) with Buenos Aires (Argentina). It runs across the Andes through the Uspallatta Pass (3900 m length).
What is Blue Train ?
A train from Capetown to Pretoria in South Africa.
From which station runs Orient express to ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
From Paris to Istanbul.
Name the two terminal ports of Suez canal.
Port Said (North) and Port Suez (South).
Which country of the world has the highest road density? (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Japan has the highest road density.
Name two terminal ports of Panama canal.
Port Colone and Panama.
Name an inland waterway in North America and Germany. (C.B.S.E. 2011, 2014)
St. Lawrence River-great lakes and Rhine waterway.
Name the busiest ocean route of the world. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
North Altantic ocean route.
Which means of transport is highly suitable for transporting heavy and bulky goods, at a very low cost over long distances between continents ?
What term is used for a railway line that runs across a continent and link its two ends ?
Trans continental railway.
Name the famous petroleum pipeline which connects the oil wells of the Gulf of Mexico and the North Eastern States in U.S.A.
Big Inch pipeline.
Name the terminal station of Australian Trans-continental railway.
Explain the most important feature of the pipe line constructed from Noharkatiya oil field to Barauni ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
This was the first pipe fine constructed by I.O.L in 1956.
Which one of the following water ways has drastically reduced the oceanic distance between India and Europe. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
(i) Rhine Water way
(ii) The Cape of good hope as a route
(iii) Suez Canal
(iv) Panama Canal.
(iii) Suez Canal.
Which Inland waterway of the world is most heavily used. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
The Rine Inland waterway of the world in most heavily used.
Name the terminal stations of the longest railway in the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009,11)
Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway in the world. It has terminal station of Vladivostock (in the east) and St. Petersburg (in the west).
Which highway connects North America and South America ? (C.B.S.E. 2013
Pan American highway.
Define the term Road density. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Road density in the length of roads per 100 sq. km. of area.
“The Volga is one of the most developed inland waterways in Russia” Justify.
Volga is 3840 km long river in Russia and provide 11,200 km navigable able route. It joined Moscow and Ukraine through densely populated area.
Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Define transport services. Name different methods and goods carried by these.
Transport is a service for the carriage of person and goods from one place to another.
It uses humans, animals and vehicles. Such movements take place over land, water and air.
(i) Land transport includes roads and railways.
(ii) Water transport includes shipping and waterways.
(iii) Air transport includes high valued goods.
(iv) Pipelines carry petroleum, natural gas and liquids.
On what factors does the significance of mode of transport depend ?
The significance of a mode of transport depends upon :
(i) Type of goods and services to be transported.
(ii) Costs of transport.
(iii) The mode which is available.
Distinguish between metalled and unmetalled roads as regards their utility.
Two types of roads are constructed :
(i) Unmetalled roads
(ii) Metalled roads.
Unmetalled roads or surface roads are simple roads. These are not effective and serviceable for all seasons. In rainy season, these become unmotorable.
Metalled roads are laid with bricks and stones. These are solid roads. But during heavy rains and floods these, are damaged. High embankments are constructed to protect these.
What are border roads ? What [ are their functions ?
Roads laid along international borders are called border roads. They play an important role in integrating people in remote areas with the major cities. These provide defence needs. These are used to transport goods to border villages and military camps.
State any two advantages of water transport.
(i) It does not require route construction.
(ii) The oceans are linked with each other.
(iii) These are negotiable with ships of various sizes.
(iv) The energy cost of water transport is low.
(v) It is the cheapest means of transport.
Describe the Great lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway.
The great lakes of North America, Superior, Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by Soo canal and Willand canal to form an Inland waterway. The Estuary of St; Lawrence River along with great lakes forms a commerical waterway.
Analyse the three factors that affect the development of Inland of waterways. Explain the significance of Rhine Inland Waterway. (Delhi 2019)
The development of inland waterways depend upon the following factors :
(i) Width and depth of channel
(ii) Continuous flow of water
(iii) Use of technology for dredging.
Significance of Rhine Inland Waterway: The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands. It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its north in the Netherland to Basel in Switzerland. It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area. This waterway is the world’s most heavily used.
Write an essay on the economic importance of Trans-Siberian Railway line. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Trans-Siberian Railway line connects the Ear East, the Ural region and the Siberian region with the European Russia. It has helped in the economic development of Siberia. Iron ore and machinery is sent to the Eastern region by this railway.
Foodgrains, wood and coal are sent towards the western part from the Siberian region. Many navigable rivers join this railway line from North and South. Many industrial and commercial towns of Siberia are located on this railway fine. This railway line has helped in the utilisation of resources of Siberia and consequently the density of population has increased in this region.
Name any two inland waterways of Europe. Explain any two factors that influence inland waterways. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The two important inland waterways of Europe are Rhine waterway and Danube waterway. The following factors affect the inland waterways.
(i) Navigability of waterway
(ii) Width and depth of waterway
(iii) Water flow
(iv) Transport technology.
Write six characteristics of Panama canal. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 2017)
1. It is located in Panama. U.S.A. has control over this canal.
2. It allows two way traffic.
3. It has lock system to allow the ships.
4. Less taxes are charged from the ships passing through this canal.
5. It connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
6. Coal is not available in large quantity on this route.
7. It is important for U.S.A., as the ships do not have to go around Cape Horn.
Name the trans-continental railway of North America constructed in 1886. Write any two characteristics of it. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Trans-canadian railway line was constructed in 1886.
- It runs across Canada from West to East.
- It connects Halifax and Victoria.
Write any six characteristics of the Suez canal. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
- Suez canal is the longest navigation canal in the world.
- It was constructed in 1866 by French Engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps.
- Suez canal joins Red Sea with Mediterranean Sea.
- Suez canal has been called the lifeline of the British Empire.
- It is well served with coal and oil.
- This is a sea level canal passing through a level area.
Mention any six advantages of oceanic routes. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Advantages of Ocean Routes :
- It is the cheapest means of transport.
- It is a natural highway and involves no expenditure on its construction.
- It is a global route as all the oceans are interlinked.
- It saves a lot of coal and petroleum as fuel.
- It carries heavy goods. Cost of transportation becomes low.
- Ocean routes run in all directions with no maintenance costs.
Describe the pack animals used in different countries.
Pack Animals. The following pack animals are used in different countries :
(i) Horses are used as a draught animal even in the Western countries
(ii) Dogs and reindeer are used in North America, North Europe and Siberia to draw sledges over the snow-covered ground.
(iii)Mules are preferred in the mountainous regions
(iv) Camels are used for caravans in deserts and arid regions
(v) In India, bullocks are used for pulling carts.
Describe the main railways of African continent. How do these connect mining areas ?
Africa. This continent, despite being the second largest, has only 40,000 km of railways with South Africa alone accounting for 22,051km due to the concentration of gold, diamond and copper mining activities. The important routes of the continent are
- the Benguela Railway through Angola to Katanga- Zambia Copper Belt
- the Tanzania Railway from the Zambian Copper Belt to Dar-es-Salaam on the coast
- the Railway through Botswana and Zimbabwe linking the landlocked states to the South African network, and
- the Blue Train from Cape Town to Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.
Describe any three major problems of road transport in the world. (CBSE 2018)
Major problems of Road transport are:
(i) Air pollution is caused by C02, hydrocarbons and nitrogen emission from the automobiles.
(ii) High rate of accidents are there to use unmetalled or low maintained roads.
Roads are difficult if use during the time of natural calamities and bad weather conditions.
(iii) Road network cannot cope with the demands of traffic as a result congestion occurs.
(iv) Road construction requires heavy investment in construction and regular maintenance.
Describe the Rhine Waterway. “The Rhine waterways is the world’s most heavily used inland waterway.” In the light of this statement, examine the significance of this waterway. (CBSE 2016)
The Rhine Water way: The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands. It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland. Ocean-going vessels can reach up to Cologne. The Ruhr river joins the Rhine from the east. It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area.
Dusseldorf is the Rhine port for this region. Huge tonnage moves along the stretch south of the Ruhr. This waterway is the world’s most heavily used. Each year more than 20,000 ocean-going ships and 2,00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargoes. It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route.
Why Pipelines are used extensively to transport commodities such as mineral oil and natural gas ? (C.B.S.E. 2011, Delhi 2019)
“Pipelines have become the most convenient and efficient mode of ; transporting liquids and gases over ; long distances in India.” Support the statement with examples. (Delhi 2019)
Pipelines are used extensively to transport liquids and gases such as water, mineral oil and natural gas. We are familiar with supply of water and mineral oil through pipes. Even cooking gas or LPG is supplied through pipelines in many parts of the world.
Pipelines can also be used to transport coal mixed with water. In USA, there is a dense network of pipelines for carrying petroleum from the regions of production to the regions of consumption. A famous pipeline of USA, known as the ‘Big Inch’ carries mineral oil from the wells of the Gulf of Mexico to the north-eastern part. About 17 per cent of all freight per tone-kilometre is carried through pipelines in U.S.A.
In Europe, West Asia, Russia and India, pipelines are being used to connect oil wells to refineries and to ports in internal markets. It is also popular for carrying natural gas. One of the longest pipelines, called COMECON, is 4800 km long. It connects oil wells of the Ural and the Volga region to the countries of East Europe.
Describe the importance of Railways.
Railway is a major medium of land transport in modem times. Railways are important from economic, social and political point of view.
- These help in the development of minerals of an area.
- Railways carry raw materials to industrial areas and distribute manufactured goods to the market.
- Railways accelerate trade.
- Railways help to maintain national unity.
- Railways provide useful help during any emergency.
- In areas of low population, construction of railways help in the growth of population.
- It is a convenient means for long distance travel.
‘Transport and communications are necessary infrastructure for the economic advancement of a country.’ Explain.
Means of transportation are necessary for the exchange of goods to meet the basic needs of man. Transportation means the exchange of persons, goods and information from one place to another. Transport and communications constitute the infrastructure for the growth and development of agriculture, industry and trade of country. These determine the stage of development and culture of the people of a country.
Main features of transport:
(i) The production and exchange of agricultural products depends on means of transportation.
(ii) Developed means of transport are essential for assembling raw materials for different industries. The manufactured goods are sent to markets at a low cost of transportation.
(iii) An efficient system of transport is essential for the growth of trade of country.
(iv) The working population, both employed in the government and personal services, largely depends on the means of transportation. Life in the Metropolitan cities would come to a standstill if the lines of transport and communications were dislocated for a single day.
(v) Regional specialisation such as tea plantations in Assam and steel plants in Damodar valley are not possible without an efficient system of transport.
(vi) Telecommunication networks help in the diffusion of new ideas to far more people.
(vii) Development of the Trans-Siberian railway line has helped in the utilisation of mineral, forest and agricultural resources of Siberia and Central Asia.
(viii) The sparsely populated, forested, mountainous and arid regions lack developed means of transportation.
As a matter of fact, the developed mean of transport are an index of a country’s economic development. Transport and communications serve as ‘lifelines’ of a country’s development. These can be compared to arteries and veins of a nation.
Distinguish between a harbour I and a port.
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Extra Questions Long Answer TypeTertiary and Quaternary Activities Extra Questions HOTS
|1. A harbour is an area of sea presiding tie up for anchor. 2. It protects the ships front waves and storms. 3. River estuaries and Bays provide natural harbours surh as Mumbai. 4. A harbour provides sufficient room hinterland.||1. A port is a point on coast where ships can safe entrance to ships. 2. Ships load and unload commodities here. 3. Indented coasts provide natural ports. 4. A port is connected with a productive for an chorage of ships.|
Distinguish between National highways and State highways.
|National highways||State highways|
|1. These are the major roads of the whole country. 2. These connect the different capitals of within a state. 3. These are maintained by the Central Government. 4. Total length of national highways in India is 33,612 km. 5. These have commercial and strategic significance. 6. Sher Shah Suri large (G.T. Road) is a national highway.||1. These are the major roads within a state. 2. These connect the state capitals with the major towns and district headquarters within a state. 3. These are maintained by State Government. 4. The total length of state highways is 3.81,000 kms. 5. These have administrative significance. 6. Amritsar-Chandigarh is a state highway.|
Write a comparative account of the Panama Canal and Suez Canal.
|Panama Canal||Suez Canal|
|1. It is located in Egypt which has control over this canal. 2. It has one way traffic. 3. It is located on level aroii. 4. Heavy taxes are charged from the ships passing through this canal. 5. It connects Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. 6. Coal and petroleum are available on this route. 7. It is important for U.K. as the ships have not to go around Cape of Good Hope.||1. It is located in Panama. U.S.A. has control over this canal. 2. It allows two way traffic. 3. It has lock system to allow the ships. 4. less taxes are charged from the ships passing through this canal. 5. It connects Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. 6. Coal is not available in large quantity on this route. 7. It is important for U.S.A. as the ships have not to go around Cape Horn.|