CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Question Answer Part 2

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 9
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Question Answer Part 2

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Regional planning relates to:

  1. Development of various sectors of economy.
  2. Area specific approach of development.
  3. Area differences in transportation network.
  4. Development of rural areas.

Ans. (2) Area specific approach of development.


(ii) ITDP refers to which one of the following?

  1. Integrated Tourism Development Programme
  2. Integrated Travel Development Programme
  3. Integrated Tribal Development Programme
  4. Integrated Transport Development Programme

Ans. (3) Integrated Tribal Development Programme


(iii) Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in

Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

  1. Agricultural development
  2. Eco-development
  3. Transport development
  4. Colonisation of land

Ans. (1) Agricultural development


2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?

Ans. The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 42.83 per cent m 2001.The difference between males and females in literacy level i.e. gender inequality,has also declined.


(ii) Define the concept of sustainable development.

Ans.

Sustainable development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted definition is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundt land Report:

“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:

  • the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
  • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.”

(iii) What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

Ans. The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society. It has influenced the environmental conditions of the region both positively as well as negatively.

Positive effects:

  1. There was transformation in the agricultural region in the economy.
  2. The spread of canal irrigation has led to an increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
  3. Earlier, only drought resistant crops like Bajra, guar, moong, gram etc.were grown. Now, other crops like cotton, groundnut, wheat, mustard and even rice are grown.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this programme help in the development of dry-land agriculture in India?

Ans. Drought-prone area programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan. It was designed to provide employment to the rural poor in drought prone areas and to mitigate the effects of droughts. The main emphasis is on integrated development of the area in relation to irrigation projects,land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development,rural electrification and programmes of infrastructure development.

In 1967, Planning Commission of India identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought. In 1972, Irrigation Commission introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas. Most of the drought-prone areas in India are spread over semi-arid and arid tracts of Rajasthan Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.

This programme has played an important role in the development of dry land agriculture in India.

1. This programme was largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors.

2. Emphasises given on the irrigation project in drought prone area programme and land development programme.

3.Integrated Watershed Development approach at micro level is adopted which will help in the storing of water for the irrigation during droughts.

4. There is urgent need to generate alternative employment opportunities in drought prone areas because even the marginal lands are being used for agriculture in view of the increasing pressure of growing population. This is one of the primary causes of ecological degradation. The restoration of ecological balance should be the main objective of development of drought prone areas.


(ii) Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.

Ans. Following measures are suggested for the promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area:

1. There is an urgent need to strictly implement the water management policy.

2. Water intensive crops should be avoided and instead plantation crops such as Citrus fruits should be encouraged.

3. The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development, and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.

4. Efforts should be made to reclaim areas affected by water logging and soil salinity.

5. Afforestation, shelter belt plantation and pasture development are necessary for eco-development.

6. For achieving social sustainability, land allotted with poor economic background should be given sufficient financial and institutional support so that they can cultivate their land in a proper way.

7. Other sectors of economy, in addition to agriculture, animal husbandry and allied activities, should be encouraged for attaining economic sustainability.

NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download

CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy

Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
When was the First Five Year Plan started? State its period.
Answer:
In 1951; 1951-56.

Question 2.
When has the 10th Five Year Plan ended?
Answer:
31.3.2007.

Question 3.
State two approaches of planning?
Answer:
Sectoral and Regional.

Question 4.
What was the period of plan holiday?
Answer:
1966-67, 1968-69.

Question 5.
Examine the twin environmental problems that have emerged in the ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Answer:
The problems that have emerged in the ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command area’ are water logging and soil salinity.

Question 6.
How much area can be irrigated in drought prone areas?
Answer:
Less than 30%.

Question 7.
Name two hilly areas of Hill development.
Answer:
Darjeeling and Nilgiris.

Question 8.
In which district of Himachal Pradesh is Bharmaur tribal area located?
Answer:
In Bharmaur and Holi Tehsil of Chamba District.

Question 9.
Name two hill ranges in Bharmaur region.
Answer:
Pir Punjal and Dhaula Dhar Ranges.

Question 10.
State the population and population density of Bharmaur region.
Answer:
Total population = 32246 and the density of population = 20 person per sq. km.

Question 11.
From which Barrage was the Indira Canal taken out ?
Answer:
Harike Pattan.

Question 12.
When was NITI Aayog formed?
Answer:
On 1st January 2015.

Question 13.
What was the main objective to implement the Fourth Five Year Plan for the people in drought prone areas ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Answer:
The main objective was to provide employment to the people in drought prone areas.

Question 14.
In which Five Year Plan of India was the Hill Area Development programme initiated?
Answer:
Hill Area Development programme was initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-75 upto 1977-78) to harness indiginous resources.

Question 15.
What is sectoral planning ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Answer:
Development of various sectors of the economy.

Question 16.
How has the Gaddi Tribal community of Bharamaur region maintained the district identity ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Answer:
By practising Transhumance.

Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What do you mean by Planning? How is it a sequential process ?
Answer:
Planning is the process of evolving a sequence of actions, which are designed to solve problems in future. The planning problems vary but tend to be primarily economic and social; the planning period also varies according to the type and level of planning; but all planning involves a sequential process, which can be conceptualised into a number of stages.

Question 2.
In which areas Hill Area Development Programmes was intiated ?
Answer:
Hill Area Development Programme. Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.

The National Committee on the Development of Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan, be treated as backward hill areas.

Question 3.
What steps have been recommended for development of backward areas ?
Answer:
The National committee on the development of Backward areas have recommended the following steps:

  • All the people should get benefits.
  • To develop the local resources and talent.
  • To make the subsistence economy investment oriented.
  • Backward areas should not be exploited in internal trade.
  • To benefit the labourers by setting the markets.
  • To maintain the ecological balance.

Question 4.
Which aspects have been developed in hill area development ?
Answer:
The detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions. These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.

Question 5.
What were the objectives of Drought Prone Area Programme ?
Answer:
Drought Prone Area Programme. This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan wdth the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.

Question 6.
Which areas are Drought Prone Areas in India ?
Answer:
Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought. Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas.

Broadly, the drought-prone area in India are spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.

Question 7.
What do you mean by Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area? Describe its location and extent.
Answer:
Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area
The areas through which the Indira canal has been built and will get the benefits of it, are called its command area. Indira Gandhi Canal Project is a gigantic human effort to transform a part of desert land into a land of prosperity and plenty.

It is one of the largest canal systems of the world. The command area of Indira Gandhi Canal is located in north-western part of the Thar desert of Rajasthan in the districts of Ganganagar, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur and Churu. It is strecthed over an area of 2,37,725 sq. km., an approximate area of 525 x 45 sq. km along the border of Pakistan. The Indira Gandhi Main Canal runs parallel to the Pakistan border for an approximate distance of 38 km from north-east to south-west.

Question 8.
When was Indira Gandhi canal started? Name the states through which I this canal runs.
Answer:
Origin of Indira Canal

(i) Origin: Work on the Indira Gandhi canal began on 31 March, 1958.

(ii) Place of origin: This canal originates from Harike barrage near the confluence of Satluj and Beas rivers in Ferozpur district of Punjab.

(iii) Capacity: It is 40 metres wide at the bottom and 6.4 metres deep. The carrying capacity of canal is 18,500 cusecs of water at its head. According to a proposal in 1981, Rajasthan was allocated 8.6 million acre feet ofRavi-Beas surplus water. The Indira Gandhi Canal envisages the utilisation of 7.6 million acre feet of water allocated to Rajasthan.

(iv) Sharing States: The Indira Gandhi Canal is feeder up to a length of 204 km and traverses for a length of 150 km in Punjab and 19 km in Haryana where it does not have any outlet.

(v) Head of Canal: The head of the main canal is located near Masitanwali in Hanumangarh tehsil of Ganganagar district. The tail of the 445 km long main canal is located near Mohangarh in Jaisalmer district.

(vi) Command area: The Command Area of the canal is further extended till Gadra road in Barmer district, through Sagarmal Gopa branch. Construction work of the project is in progress and is being carried out into two states. Water was released in the main canal on 11 October 1967 and reached its tail on 1 January, 1987.

Question 9.
Describe the impact of irrigation on environment of command area.
Answer:
Impact of Irrigation on Environment.
Introduction of irrigation has brought about perceptible changes in agricultural landscape, and has increased agricultural production tremendously,

(i) Rise in water table. But it has led to environmental degradation in terms of water-logging and soil salinity. The ground-water table is rising at an alarming rate of 0.8 metre per year in most parts of Stage I. According to an estimate of the ground-water department, about 25 per cent of land under the command area in the vicinity of Ghaggar basin is critical area as the groundwater level in this area is less than 6 metres below surface level. About 50 per cent area of this region would be critical by the turn of this century if measures are not taken to arrest it.

(ii) Salinity in soils. In a large part of the command area in Stage I, soil salinity has arisen because of water-logging and the presence of strong salt regime in the soils.

(iii) Fertility of soil. This has adversely affected the soil fertility and agricultural productivity. This
problem is expected to be more serious in the command area of Stage II, where irrigation was introduced in mid-eighties. This part of the command area is underlain by hard pan of calcium carbonate and clay at a depth of few* metres which causes parched water table and water logging.

Question 10.
‘The development is a mixed  bag of opportunit ies as well as [9nl; deprivations of India’. Support the statement with suitable examples.
(C.B.S.E. 2011)
Answer:
In India, development is marked by social discrimination and regional disparity. Present development has not been able to address the issues of social justice, regional imbalance and environment degradations. Development has effect on deteriorating human conditions. Environment pollution—air, soil, water have not only led to the tragedy of commons but also have threatened the existence of our society.

Thus, development in India is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect and deprivation.

  • Few metropolitans with small section of population have modern facilities.
  • Large rural areas and slums in the urban areas do not have basic amenities.
  • Different sections of the society do not have opportunities of development.
  • Majority of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, landless agricultural labourers, poor farmers, are the most marginalised lot.
  • A large segment of female population is the worst sufferer among all.

Question 11.
Distinguish between sectoral planning and Regional planning.
Or
Examine the concept of Regional Planning.
Answer:
Generally, there are two approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning and regional planning.

1. Sectoral planning. The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.

2. Regional planning. There is no uniform economic development over space in any country. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind. This uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is termed as regional planning.

Question 8.
When was Indira Gandhi canal; started? Name the states through which At this canal runs.
Answer:
Origin of Indira Canal
(i) Origin. Work on the Indira Gandhi canal began on 31 March, 1958.

(ii) Place of origin. This canal originates from Harike barrage near the confluence of Satluj and Beas rivers in Ferozpur district of Punjab.

(iii) Capacity. It is 40 metres wide at the bottom and 6.4 metres deep. The carrying capacity of canal is 18,500 cusecs of water at its head. According to a proposal in 1981, Rajasthan was allocated 8.6 million acre feet of Ravi-Beas surplus water. The Indira Gandhi Canal envisages the utilisation of 7.6 million acre feet of water allocated to Rajasthan.

(iv) Sharing States. The Indira Gandhi Canal is feeder up to a length of 204 km and traverses for a length of 150 km in Punjab and 19 km in Haryana where it does not have any outlet.

(v) Head of Canal. The head of the main canal is located near Masitanwali in Hanumangarh tehsil of Ganganagar district. The tail of the 445 km long main canal is located near Mohangarh in Jaisalmer district.

(vi) Command area. The Command Area of the canal is further extended till Gadra road in Barmer district, through Sagarmal Gopa branch. Construction work of the project is in progress and is being carried out into two states. Water was released in the main canal on 11 October 1967 and reached its tail on 1 January, 1987.

Question 9.
Describe the impact of irrigation on environment of command area.
Answer:
Impact of Irrigation on Environment.
Introduction of irrigation has brought about perceptible changes in agricultural landscape, and has increased agricultural production tremendously,

(i) Rise in water table. But it has led to environmental degradation in terms of water-logging and soil salinity. The ground-water table is rising at an alarming rate of 0.8 metre per year in most parts of Stage I. According to an estimate of the ground-water department, about 25 per cent of land under the command area in the vicinity of Ghaggar basin is critical area as the groundwater level in this area is less than 6 metres below surface level. About 50 per cent area of this region would be critical by the turn of this century if measures are not taken to arrest it.

(ii) Salinity in soils. In a large part of the command area in Stage I, soil salinity has arisen because of water-logging and the presence of strong salt regime in the soils.

(iii) Fertility of soil. This has adversely affected the soil fertility and agricultural productivity. This problem is expected to be more serious in the command area of Stage II, where irrigation was introduced in mid-eighties. This part of the command area is underlain by hard pan of calcium carbonate and clay at a depth of few metres which causes parched water table and water logging.

Question 10.
‘The development is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as deprivations of India’. Support the statement with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Answer:
In India, development is marked by social discrimination and regional disparity. Present development has not been able to address the issues of social justice, regional imbalance and environment degradations. Development has effect on deteriorating human conditions. Environment pollution air, soil, water have not only led to the tragedy of commons but also have threatened the existence of our society.

Thus, development in India is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect and deprivation.

  • Few metropolitans with small section of population have modern facilities.
  • Large rural areas and slums in the urban areas do not have basic amenities.
  • Different sections of the society do not have opportunities of development.
  • Majority of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, landless agricultural labourers, poor farmers, are the most marginalised lot.
  • A large segment of female population is the worst sufferer among all.

Question 11.
Distinguish between sectoral planning and Regional planning.
Or
Examine the concept of Regional Planning.
Answer:
Generally, there are two approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning and regional planning.
1. Sectoral planning. The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.

2. Regional planning. There is no uniform economic development over space in any country. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind. This uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is termed as regional planning.

Question 12.
‘In India the Planning is still centralised’. Discuss and mention the subjects under it.
Answer:
In India, Planning is still centralized. National Development Council, consisting of the central cabinet, members of the Planning Commission and chief ministers of states and union territories set the policy of the planning. The Planning Commission is entrusted with the formulation of the national plans.

Subjects of national significance, such as defence, communication, railway, etc., come under the scope of Central Government, while vital elements of rural development, such as agriculture, power, education, health, social services, small-scale industries and development of roads and transport fall in the scope of the state government. In most cases, strategies, policies and programmes are formulated by the Planning Commission and states are simply asked to implement them.

Question 13.
What do you mean by “Target area’ and ‘Target group’? What programmes are being undertaken in these areas ?
Answer:
With the planning experience of about one and half decades, it was realised that regional imbalances in economic development were getting accentuated. In order to arrest the accentuation of regional and social disparties, the Planning Commission introduced the ‘target area’ and ‘target group’ approaches to planning.

Some of the examples of programmes directed towards the development of target areas are Command Area Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Development Programme, Desert Development Programme, Hill Area Development Programme.

The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which are the examples of target group programme. In the 8th Five Year Plan special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas.

Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the overview of planning prespective in India.
Answer:
After Independence, the Planning Commission stated the following Five Year Plans.
1. First Five Year Plan. The First Five Year Plan was launched in 1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to 1955-56.

2. The Second and Third Five Year Plans. Second and Third Five Year Plans covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61 and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively.

3. Plan Holiday. Two successive droughts during mid-sixties (1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with Pakistan in 1965 forced a plan holiday in 1966-67 and 1968-69.

4. Rolling Plans. This period was covered by annual plans, which are also termed as rolling plans.

5. The Fourth Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74.

6. The Fifth Five Year Plan. Following this the Fifth Five Year Plan began in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then government one year earlier, i. e., in 1977-78.

7. The Sixth Five Year Plan. The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980.

8. The Seventh Five Year Plan. The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the period between 1985 and 1990.

9. The Eight Five Year Plan. Once again due to the political instability and initiation of liberalisation policy, the
Eighth Five Year Plan got delayed. It covered the period, 1992 to 1997.

10. The Ninth Five Year Plan. The Ninth Five Year Plan covered the period from 1997 to 2002.

11. The Tenth Five Year Plan. The Tenth Plan began in 2002 and ended on 31.3.2007.

12. The Eleventh Plan. The Eleventh Five Year Plan covered the period of 2007 to 2012.

13. The Twelfth Five Year Plan. The Twelfth Five Year Plan started on 2012 and currently in progress.

Question 2.
Describe the physical environment of Bharmaur regions.
Answer:
1. Location and Area. This region lies between 32° 11′ N and 32°41′ N latitudes and 76° 22′ E and 76° 53’E longitudes and is spread over an area of about 1,818 sq. km.

2. Relief. The region mostly lies between 1,500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea level. This region popularly known as the homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides. It has Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south. In the east, the extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass.

3. River. The river Ravi and its tributaries the Budhil and the Tundahen, drain this territary, and carve out deep gorges. These rivers divide the region into four physiographic divisions called Holi, Khani, Kugti and Tundah areas.

4. Climate. Bharmaur experiences freezing weather conditions and snowfall in winter. Its mean monthly temperature in January remains 4°C and in July 26°C.

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