Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids Bases and Salts

Class 10 Chapter 2 Acids Bases and Salts : Acids is defined as the one which produces hydrogen ions in water. For Example, Sulphuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid etc.

Acid Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes in Hindi अम्ल, क्षार एवं लवण : लवण

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Class 10 Acids Bases and Salts Chapter Related FAQ

You are given three test tubes. The three test tubes contain distilled water, acidic solution and the basic solution respectively. There is only red litmus paper available in order to identify what is there in each test tube. How will you find out what is in each of the test tubes?

Solution: We can identify the content in each of the test tubes using red litmus paper. This can be done by noticing the color change of the red litmus paper.
* If the red litmus paper changes to blue color the solution is a basic solution.
* If the red litmus paper experience no change in acidic solution.
* If the red litmus paper changes to purple color the solution is distilled water.

Why should curd and sour substances not be kept in brass and copper vessels?

Solution: Curd and sour food substances contain acids; these acidic substances combine with metal. This reaction turns food to poison which damage people’s health.

A salt formed by incomplete neutralization of an acid by a base

When aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed in the proper proportion, a reaction takes place to form sodium chloride and water.

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aqr) ↔ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Which gas is usually liberated when an acid reacts with a metal? Illustrate with an example. How will you test for the presence of this gas?

Solution: When an acid reacts with any metal, salt and hydrogen gas are formed.u003cbr/u003eMetal + Acid → Salt + Hydrogen gas

Metal compound A reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce effervescence. The gas evolvedu003cbr/u003eextinguishes a burning candle. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction if one of the compounds formed is calcium chloride.

Solution: As metal compound released is Calcium Chloride the gas evolved here is COu003csubu003e2u003c/subu003e. Hence metal A should be Calcium Carbonate. Hence the reaction between Calcium Carbonate and HCl is.u003cbr/u003eCaCOu003csubu003e3u003c/subu003e (s) + 2HCl (Aq) → CaClu003csubu003e2u003c/subu003e( Aq) + COu003csubu003e2u003c/subu003e (g) + Hu003csubu003e2u003c/subu003eO (l)

What is an acid?

Acids are sour in taste, turn blue litmus red, and dissolve in water to release H+ ions.u003cbr/u003eExample: Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Acetic Acid (CH3COOH), Nitric Acid (HNO3), etc.

Properties of Acids

Acids have a sour taste.
Turns blue litmus red.
Acid solution conducts electricity.
Release H+ ions in aqueous solution.

Types of Acids

Natural Acidsu003cbr/u003eMineral Acids

What is Indicators?

Indicators are substances which indicate the acidic or basic nature of the solution by the color change.

What are bases and alkalies?

Solution. : Bases are bitter in taste, have soapy touch, turn red litmus blue and give hydroxide ions (OH–) in aqueous.u003cbr/u003eExamples: Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) – NaOHu003cbr/u003eCalcium hydroxide – Ca(OH)2u003cbr/u003ePotassium hydroxide (caustic potash) – (KOH)

Properties of Bases

Have a bitter taste.u003cbr/u003eSoapy to touch.u003cbr/u003eTurns red litmus blue.u003cbr/u003eConducts electricity in solution.u003cbr/u003eRelease OH– ions in Aqueous Solution

Define pH

pH of a given solution is the negative logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration, [H+] expressed in g ions/lit or moles/lit. Thusu003cbr/u003epH=- log[H+]

What are the practical applications of neutralisation reactions?

Being alkaline in nature, cold milk is used to neutralise the acidity produced by HCl present in the gastric juice in the stomach.
Astronauts in space ships use this reaction to neutralise the dangerous levels of CO2.
Farmers add slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to reduce acidity of soil.
Sting of ants and bees contains formic acid. This can be neutralised by rubbing soap, which contains free sodium hydroxide.
Persons suffering from acidity are given antacid tablets, containing magnesium hydroxide which neutralises excess HCl produced, in stomach. Alternately, they are advised to sip cold milk, which neutralises HCl.

Why the salts solutions of strong acid and strong alkali are neutral?

Let us take the example of potassium sulphate, which is a salt of strong acid [sulphuric acid] and strong base [potassium hydroxide solution].u003cbr/u003eFrom the above equation, it is clear that water is always feebly ionised and hence solution of potassium sulphate is neutral in nature.

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