Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 12 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 12 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 12 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another place permanently in search of better opportunities.
Cities with high concentration of urban population are called Urban Agglomeration
|LIFE TIME MIGRANT||MIGRANT BY LAST RESIDENCE|
|1. If the place of birth of person is different from the place of enumeration. It is termed as Life Time Migrant.||1. If the place of Last Residence of a person is different from the place of enumeration. It is termed as Migrant by last residence.|
|2. As per 2001 census 30% workers reported as Life time migrant.||2. As per 2001 census 31% workers reported as Migrant by last residence.|
THE MAIN REASON FOR MALE/FEMALE SELECTIVE MIGRATION
Selective female migration is due to marriage. After marriage the girl is to live at another place away from her parent’s house. Selective male migration is due to economic factors. Male migrate to towns in search of work & employment.
THE IMPACT OF RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION ON THE AGE & SEX STRUCTURE OF THE PLACE OF ORIGIN & DESTINATION
1. Rural/urban migration causes imbalance in age structure.
2. At place of origin, sex ratio increases while the ratio of young age workers decreases.
3. In rural area population of children is more than adults while population of adults increase in urban area (place of destination).
THE CONSEQUENCES OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN INDIA ARE FOLLOWINGS:-
1. More than 50 lakh people are migrated to India from neighboring countries like Bangladesh Nepal & Pakistan.
2. Above 2 crore Indians have also migrated to other countries.
ECONOMIC, DEMOGRAPHIC & SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES
3. This migration has resulted in blending of different cultures.
4. New ideas & technologies have been shifted to rural areas from urban.
5. It breaks narrow consideration & evolves composite cultures.
6. These are the migrants who made green revolution a big success.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
7. It results in the formation of slum areas.
8. Migration also results in depletion of ground water.
9. Migration also results in air pollution.
10. Due to migration there is depletion of ground water.
THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MIGRATION OF PEOPLE IN INDIA
1. People often migrate in search of better paid jobs.
2. To get better living conditions people migrate towards towns.
3. For the migration of women marriage is the main cause.
4. People also migrate due to social insecurity & Political disturbances.
5. Pull factors attract the people to migrate in search of better facilities.
6. Push factors force the people to migrate towards other places.
THERE ARE FOUR STREAMS OF MIGRATION:-
- Rural to Rural
- Rural to Urban
- Urban to Urban
- Urban to Rural
|INTRA-STATE MIGRATION||INTER-STATE MIGRATION|
|1. If the movement of population is within the state, it is called Intra-State Migration||1. If the movement of population occurs beyond the boundaries of the state, it is called Inter State Migration.|
|2. For Example Migration between Ambala & Karnal||2. For Example, Migration between Ambala & Amritsar.|
PUSH FACTORS– These factors compel people to leave their place of residence. In India people people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on land & lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health, education etc.
PULL FACTORS– These factors attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for majority of rural migrants to urban areas is better opportunities, availability of regular work & better wages.
Good education facilities & better health facilities are other important pull factors.
WRITE A NOTE ON IMMIGRATION FROM NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES
1. More than 5 million people have migrated to India from other countries.
2. Out of these 96 % came from neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Nepal & Pakistan.
3. 0.16 million refugees are from Tibet also.