Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 13 Human Development
GIVE TWO REASONS FOR LOW LEVELS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN MOST OF THE NORTHERN STATES OF INDIA
The reasons for low levels of human development in most of the northern states of India are
1. These states are less developed as most of the states are dependent on agriculture.
2. These States have some severe problems like poverty unemployment and literacy
GIVE TWO REASONS FOR DECLINING CHILD SEX RATIO IN INDIA PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY WITH MORE MALE
1. Patriarchal society with more male-centric thoughts in many parts of India prefers boy child over girl child.
2. Medical advancement is misused in India for determination of sex and female fetuses were identified and aborted.
DISCUSS THE SPATIAL PATTERNS OF FEMALE LITERACY IN INDIA IN 2001 AND BRING OUT THE REASONS RESPONSIBLE FOR IT
1. Overall literacy in India is approximately 65.4% (2001) while female literacy is 54. 16%.
2. Total literacy as well as female literacy is higher than the national average in most of the States from South India.
3. There are wide regional disparities in literacy rate across the states of India. There is a state like Bihar which has very low literacy 47. 53% and there are states like Kerala and Mizoram which have literacy rate of 90.9 to and 88.8 49% respectively.
Two reasons are
1. Urban areas provide more facilities to female then rural areas as urban people are more modern 2. The northern states of India are socially and economically backward so they made less investment in female child education.
WHICH FACTORS HAVE CAUSED SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN THE LEVELS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AMONG THE 15 MAJOR STATES IN INDIA.
The factors which have caused spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the 15 major states in India are
1. Literacy Kerala is able to record the highest value in the HDI largely due to its impressive performance in achieving near 100% literacy. In a different scenario the states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam and Uttar Pradesh have very low literacy
2. Economic development economics developed states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Punjab and Haryana have higher value of HDI as compare To States like Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh etc.
3. Regional distortions and social disparities which developed during the colonial period continue to play an important role in the Indian economy politics and Society. The Government of India has made concerted efforts to institutionalize the balanced development with its main focus on social distributive justice through planned development.
4. It has made significant achievements in most of the fields but these are still below the desired level.
‘THE DEVELOPMENT IS A MIXED BAG OF OPPORTUNITIES AS WELL AS DEPRIVATIONS OF INDIA.’ SUPPORT THE STATEMENT WITH SUITABLE EXAMPLES.
I. In India development is marked by social discrimination & regional disparity.
2. Present development has not been able to address the issue of social justice, regional imbalance & environment degradation. Development has effect on deteriorating human conditions.
3. Environmental pollution have not only led to the tragedy of commons but also threaten the
existence of our society.
Thus development in India is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect & deprivation.
A. Few metropolitans with small section of population have modern facilities.
B. Large rural areas & slums in the urban areas do not have basic amenities.
C. Different sections of the society do not have opportunities of development.
D. A large segment of female population is the worst sufferers among all.
WRITE A NOTE ON INDICATORS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT USED IN INDIA.
1. The quality of life & the level of human well being are difficult to measure quantitatively.
2. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has developed composite index to measure development which includes (A) Longevity of life, (B)Knowledge base, & (C)Decent Standard of living
3. Life expectancy was chosen as an index of longevity & adult literacy as an index of knowledge.
4. Per Capita Gross National Product adjusted for purchasing power Parity (PPP) as an index of decent life.
EXPLAIN THE WESTERN EURO CENTRIC VIEW OF DEVELOPMENT
1. According to Western Euro Centric view, of ‘development is freedom’.
2. It is often associated with modernization, leisure, comfort & affluence.
3. In the present context computerization, industrialisation, efficient transport & communication network, large education system, advanced & modern medical facilities, safety & individuals’ security are considered as the symbols of development.
4. But this may be one sided view of development. For a country like India colonization, marginalization, social discrimination & regional disparity etc. show the other face of development.
DESCRIBE THE INDICATORS OF A HEALTHY LIFE. DESCRIBE THE PROGRESS MADE IN INDIA IN THESE.
1. Life free from illness & ailment and living a reasonably long life span are indicative of healthy life.
2. Availability of health care, Facilities to reduce infant mortality rate, Old age health care & proper nutrition are some important measures of a healthy & reasonably long life progress in India.
3. India has done reasonably well in decreasing its death rate & controlling birth rate to some extent.
4. Infant mortality rate is also declined reasonably.
5. Life expectancy is also increased in India though a lot is yet to be done.
VIEWS OF MAHATMA GANDHI & OTHER WRITERS ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT, RESOURCES & DEVELOPMENT.
1. Malthus was the first to show concern about the growing scarcity of resources as compared to the human population.
2. Gandhi ji advocated the reinforcement of harmony & balance between population & resources.
3. In his opinion trusteeship of social wealth & non violence are key to attain higher goals in life of an individual as well as of a nation.
4. His views were also re-echoed in the club of Rome Report, “Limits to Growth”, Schumacher’s book “Small is Beautiful”, Brundtland Commission report “Our Common Future” & finally in the “Agenda-21 Report of the Reo Conference”.