Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Population Composition
POPULATION COMPOSITION means demographic structure. It includes age, sex, literacy, occupations, and life expectancy. People are distinguished by these attributes.
AGE STRUCTURE means the number of people or percentage of people in different age groups.
- Children (0 to 14 years)
- Adults (15 to 59 years)
- Old People (60 years & above)
SIGNIFICANCE OF AGE STRUCTURE
- It is an important indicator of population composition.
- It helps to know the labour force of a region, employment of a region & dependent population.
- It helps to know the future growth of population of a region.
- SEX RATIO The ratio between number of men & women is called Sex Ratio. It reflects the balance between males & females. It shows the status of women in the country. It is unfavourable to women. In some countries it is calculated by using the formula:
However in India sex ratio is measured in terms of females per thousand males & is worked out using the formula:
Or the number of female per thousand males.
DESCRIBE THE RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION OF POPULATION.
- Division of population In to rural & urban population is done on the basis of their residence whether in village or in towns, cities, metropolis or cosmopolitan cities.
- Rural & urban lifestyles are different from each other in terms of livelihood & social conditions.
- Age, sex, occupational structure, density of population & level development in rural & urban areas are different from each others.
- Generally in rural areas people are engaged in primary activities & in urban areas people are engaged in manufacturing & tertiary activities.
- Urban centres offer higher employment opportunities & higher standard of living. Hence they attract a large number of populations from the rural areas.
- In western countries males are more than females in rural areas & females are more than males in urban areas.
- But in developing countries like India, Nepal & Pakistan the situation is just opposite.
DISCUSS THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IMBALANCE IN SEX AGE FOUND IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD & OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE.
The ratio between the number of women & men in the population is called sex ratio. There is a huge imbalance in sex age structure in developed & developing countries.
- This huge imbalance is due to gender discrimination in many countries like India & Pakistan.
- Sex ratio is unfavourable where female foeticide & domestic violence against women is prevalent.
- The main reason for this imbalance is lower economic status of women.
In a less developed economy, the proportion of working population in primary activities is very high. As the economy develops, the proportion of working population engaged in secondary & then in tertiary activities increases gradually which also affects sex ratio.
Preference for male child is the factor responsible for gender discrimination or unfavourable sex ratio.
- The working population take part in various occupations such as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.
- Each category refers to the level of economic development of the country.
- Developed countries only show the job opportunities more in secondary activities
- Developing countries show more people under primary activity.
POPULATION CONTROL MEASURES ARE FOLLOWINGS:
Limiting the population growth, improving women’s health, access to family, Planning services, Free availability of contraceptives,, tax disincentives for large families,Government incentives for small families.
TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH: Population growth is due to
- Agricultural development, industrial revolution, transportation, sanitation and medical facilities, biotechnology,information and computers technological revolution.
- Discovery of machines, medicines, Population Increased 10 times during last 500 years,
- 4 times in 20th century,80 million people are added each year.
DOUBLING TIME OF WORLD POPULATION
- More than one million to become one billion pop
- It took 12 years to become from 5 billion to 6 billion
- Developed countries take more time than developing countries
- Liberia highest growth rate: 8.2% Latvia lowest gr : -1.5%
AGE- SEX PYRAMID
- It Shows Number of females and males in different age groups.
- Population Pyramid is used to show age sex structure.
- The Shape of pyramid shows the characteristics of population.
- Left side shows male and right side shows the female.
TYPES OF AGE SEX PYRAMID
- triangular shape ,
- Less developed countries ,
- young pop. is more,
- ex. Bangladesh, Mexico, Nigeria
- A bell shaped,
- Birth and death rates are equal,
- Ex Australia
- narrow base ,
- Low birth and death ,
- Shows developed countries ,
- Growth is negative or zero ex. Japan
LITERACY In India literate means:
Population above 7 years age who is able to read write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding. Literacy indicates the socio economic development
Lower socio economic status
Due to female feticide, female infanticide, domestic violence against women
Sometimes men might have migrated so women no. Is more
Natural advantages of women: they are more resilient, more resistant power, more patience
Sex ratio of the world is: 990 females/ 1000 males
Latvia highest 1187 lowest is 468/1000 males
It is favorable in 139 countries&Unfavorable in 72 countries
Asia has low sex ratio &Europe has the highest
Europe has better status of women
Male dominated out migration
- Predict the future pop. Of any area
- Any region changes from high Birth Rate& Death Rate to low Birth Rate & Death Rate.
- progress from rural to urban
- Illiterate to literate
- These are collectively known as demographic cycle
- High fertility, High mortality, Low growth, More epidemics,Variable food supply ,
- Agriculture is occupation, Low life expectancy, Illiteracy,Low level of technology –
- Rain forest tribes, Bangladesh
- Fertility remains high ,but decline with time, Reduced mortality,Improved sanitation,
- Medical facilities, High growth rate, Ex. Peru, Sri Lanka, Kenya
- Low birth rate and Death rate,
- Slow Growth Rate,
- Stable growth rate,
- Urbanized population High technology. Small families. Flexible families’ ex. Canada, Japan, USA