Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 4 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 4 Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 4 Human Development
Human Development is the development that enlarges people’s choices & improves their lives. Development ensures a meaningful life for the people by bringing a qualitative change.
THE BASIC AREAS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ARE / THE INDICATORS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
(A) Health The indicator chosen to measure health is life expectancy at birth. Higher the life expectancy at birth, higher is the human development index.
(B) Education Education here involves adult literacy rate & gross enrolment ratio.
(C) Access to resources Access to resources is measured in terms of purchasing power (in US dollar)
(D) The Infant mortality rate is high in developing countries. People are not able to provide food &medicines.
(E) GDP & GNP showing the per capita income of a country is an important indicator of HDI.
Four main components of human development are Equity, sustainability, productivity & empowerment.
HOW ARE COUNTRIES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX?
1. Member’s countries have been divided into three broad groups on the basics of Human Development scores earned by them.
2. Countries with a score of above 0.8 are termed as having high index value.
3. Countries with score of between 0.5 & o.799 are placed in medium level of development.
4. Countries having development index below 0.5 are said to have low level of human development.
WHAT DO EQUITY & SUSTAINABILITY REFER TO WITHIN THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT?
EQUITY means equal access to opportunities available to everybody.
- The opportunities available must be equal to all people irrespective of their colour, creed, caste, gender, race & income.
- But equity is not seen absolutely in any country. The problems for equality are gender discrimination, racial discrimination, Variable Income, Caste System. Normally, the poor & persons belonging to socially & economically backward groups failed to have access to equity.
SUSTAINABILITY refers to continuity in the availability of opportunities.
- This means that each generation must have the same opportunities.
- Therefore, we must use our environmental, financial & human resources in such a way that our future generations are not deprived of these opportunities.
WHAT IS THE NECESSITY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT/ EXPLAIN IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.
1. Human Development is needed to improve the human conditions.
2. It helps in reducing the growth of population.
3. Human Development is friendly to the physical environment also, Deforestation, Desertification & soil erosion decline when poverty decline.
4. Human Development is needed to enhance democracy & social stability.
5. Human Development also helps in reducing civil disturbances in the society.
6. Human Development also helps in political stability.
EXPLAIN FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
3. PRODUCTIVITY means human labour productivity in terms of human work.
- It must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.
- People are the real wealth of the nations.
- Efforts to increase their knowledge or provide better health facilities ultimately lead to better work efficiency.
4. EMPOWERMENT means to have the power to make choices.
- Such power comes from increasing freedom & capabilities.
- Good governance & people oriented policies are required to empower people
- The empowerment of socially & economically disadvantaged groups is of great importance.
CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
Countries can be classified into four groups on the basis of the human development scores earned by them:
- Very High
ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE
Level of development Score in Development Index
- Very High Above 0.808
- High Between 0.700 up to 0.507
- Medium Between 0.556 up to 0.699
- Low Below 0.555
THE ATTRIBUTES OF MEANINGFUL LIFE ARE-
A meaningful life must be a life with some purposes as:
- People must be healthy.
- People must be able to develop their talents.
- They must participate in the society.
- People must be free to achieve their goals.
HOW PEOPLE CAN BE EMPOWERED?
- People can be empowered by increasing freedom.
- People can be empowered by increasing their capabilities.
- People can be empowered by good governance.
- People can also be empowered by People oriented policies.
NAME THE FOUR IMPORTANT APPROACHES FOR STUDYING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.
- The income approach
- The welfare approach
- Minimum needs approach
- Capabilities approach.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX IS NOT A RELIABLE MEASURE DUE TO SHORT FALLS AS:
- It does not give reliable figures for human poverty.
- It is a non-income measure.
- Adult literacy & poverty index are more revealing.
THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AS DESCRIBED BY DR. HAQ
- DR HAQ described that human development enlarges people’s choices & improves their lives.
- People are central to all development. The choices keep on changing.
- It is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.
- People must be healthy, be able to develop their talents & be free to achieve their goals.
THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO PROF. AMRITYA SEN
- He observed that an increase in freedom is the main objective of development.
- It is the most effective way of bringing about development.
- He believes that social & Political institutions increase freedom.