Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 7 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
TERTIARY & QUATERNARY ACTIVITIES.
Explain Retail Trading Services:
- It is taken place at a fixed or non-establishment or stores solely devoted to selling.
- Generally retailers buy goods from whole sellers on credit.
- Forms of retail selling are: – Street peddling, Handcarts, Trucks, Door to door, Mail order, Telephone, Automatic Machines.
Describe QUATERNARY SERVICES:
- Knowledge oriented services are termed as quaternary services.
- This sector of services is divided into two sectors: Quaternary services & Quinary services.
- Quaternary services involve collection, production, and dissemination of information & even production of information.
- Quinary services involve research, development, specialised knowledge, technical skills & administrative competence.
FAST EMERGING COUNTRIES IN MEDICAL TOURISM are Singapore, India, Thailand, Australia & Malaysia.
DIGITAL DIVIDE is the gap in the opportunities emerging information & communication technology based development between the developed & developing countries.
THE SIGNIFICANCE & GROWTH OF THE SERVICE SECTOR IN MORDEN ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT:
1. Now the scenario has changed. Service sector has increased & developed tremendously these days.
2. Multiplexes & restaurants have been set up in different part of cities & towns.
3. Services are an important constituent of modern economic development.
4. Business services enhance the productivity of the efficiency of other activities.
5. Service sector provides employment to a large no. of workers & helps in the development of other sectors.
6. With the growth of population services have now been regulated. E.g. maintaining highways, super ways, maintaining fire fighting equipments, customer cares etc.
7. Now-a-days these services are performed by governments or companies.
8. Professional services are introduced like health care, engineering.
SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION SERVICES: (2004)
1. Transport is an organised service which satisfies man’s basic needs of mobility.
2. Speedy & efficient transport systems assist in the production, distribution & consumption.
3. Transportation at every stage enhances the value of materials significantly.
4. The development of present day development of man depends on communication.
5. New developments like cell phones & satellites have made communication independent of transport.
6. Communications inventions have brought the worlds’ remote areas together.
7. Internet is connecting the 100 million people of more than 100 countries.
|TRANSPORT||COMMUNICATION ( 2005)|
|1. Transport is used for carrying goods & passengers from one place to another.||1. Communication is used for conveying messages, ideas & information between individuals or to the masses.|
|2. Physical or bodily movement is necessary.||2. Physical or bodily movement is not necessary in all cases.|
|3. It reduces distances.||3. It increases worldwide knowledge.|
|4. Humans, Animals & various types of vehicles are the means of transport.||4. Portal services, telephones, telex, internet etc. are the means of communication.|
IMPORTANCE OF SERVICE SECTOR IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD (2005)
1. Service sector has now given an independent status as a productive sector in the economy.
2. Service sector provides employment opportunities to a large no. of people specially women.
3. Service sector has now involved outsourcing & off shoring in the global market to reduce cost.
IMPORTANCE OF QUATERNARY ACTIVITIES IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY. (2005)
1. In recent years information technology has given rise to knowledge based industries such as technology parks.
2. Genetic engineering has led to development in the fields of energy, medicine, healthcare, transport & communication.
3. Economic activities have stretched over larger distances by the use of telecommunication.
A NODE or VERTEX is the meeting point of two routes.
ISOCHRONE is the line which joins places on map, equal in terms of time taken to reach them.
TERTI ARY&QUATERNARYACTI VI TI ES.
DESCRI BE QUATERNARY SERVICES:
1. KNOWLEDGE ORIENTED SERVICES ARE TERMED AS QUATERNARY SERVICES.
2. THIS SECTOR OF SERVICES IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTORS: QUATERNARY SERVICES & QUINARY SERVICES.
3. QUATERNARY SERVICES INVOLVE COLLECTION, PRODUCTION, AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION & EVEN PRODUCTION OF INFORMATION.
4. QUINARY SERVICES INVOLVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, SPECIALISED KNOWLEDGE, TECHNICAL SKILLS & ADMINISTRATIVE COMPETENCE.
5.Quaternary activities characterised by the highest incomes.
4. They are the higher degree of mobility in the process of career advancement .
5. Education information, research & development are the examples of this category .
TOURISM IS TRAVEL UNDERTAKEN FOR PURPOSES OF RECREATION RATHER THAN BUSINESS.
FACTORS AFFECTING TOURISM ARE
1. Demand. Since the last century the demand for holidays has increased rapidly. increased leisure time permits many more people to go on holidays.
2. Transport. Big improvement in transport has increased the rate of tourism in the world. the advantage of package holidays has reduced the costs as well.
3. Climate. The avail ability of all types of climate in the world attract many tourists towards different places of the world. People visits different climatic regions as per their choices.
4. Landscape Mountains, lakes, spectacular sea coasts & landscape attract large number of tourists which affect the tourism industry.
5. History & arts of an area have potential attractiveness. people visit areas which are having the historical values.
1.All kinds of services provided to people include tertiary activities.
2. Increase the efficiency or the productivity of the people engaged in other activities.
3. These activities are also called service sector.
4. The people engaged in these activities earn more.
5. Education, health, transport & trade are the example.
OUTSOURCING IS GIVING WORK TO AN OUTSIDE AGENCY TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY AND REDUCE COSTS.
WHEN OUTSOURCING INVOLVES TRANSFERRING WORK TO OVERSEAS LOCATIONS, IT IS DESCRIBED BY THE TERM OFF-SHORING.
QUINARY SERVICES INVOLVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT , SPECIALISED KNOWLEDGE, TECHNICAL SKILLS & ADMINISTRATIVE COMPETENCE.
a) These are called gold collar professions.
b) They are special and highly paid skills of senior business executives, govt. officials, research scientists, financial & legal consultants.
c) Their importance is significant in the structure of advanced economies