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10 science carbon and its compounds Chapter notes

Lesson of 10 Science

  1. Bonding in Carbon

Carbon form covalent bonds. Formation of covalent bond: Covalent bond formation involves sharing of electrons between bonding atoms which may be either same or different.


Covalency: 
The number of electrons contributed by an atom for sharing is known as its covalency.


Characteristics of covalent compounds:
(i) These compounds are molecular in nature (i.e. they exist as single molecules)
(ii) These are insoluble in water and soluble in benzene, kerosene and petrol etc.
(iii) These compounds are poor conductor of electricity.

  1. Allotropy in Carbon

The property due to which an element exists in two or more forms, which differ in their physical and some ofthe chemical properties is known as “Allotropy” and the various forms are called “Allotropes”.

♦ Carbon exists in two allotropic form (i) crystalline (ii) amorphous. The crystalline forms are diamond and graphite whereas the amorphous forms are coal, charcoal, lampblack etc.

♦ Fullerenes form another class of carbon allotropes. The first one to be identified was C- 60, which has carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a football.




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