Class 10 Science CBSE Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals : – Elements are classified broadly into two categories on the basis of properties: Metals: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Aluminium etc.
Non – metals: Chlorine, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur etc.Apart from metals and non-metals some elements show properties of both metals and non – metals, e.g. Silicon, Arsenic, Germanium .They are called metalloids
Class 10th Science Other Chapter Solution
- Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions and Equations
- Chapter 1: रासायनिक अभिक्रिया एवं समीकरण
- Chapter 2: Acids, Bases, and Salts
- Chapter 2: अम्ल, क्षार एवं लवण : लवण
- Chapter 3: Metals and Non-Metals
- Chapter 4: Carbon and its Compounds
- Chapter 5: Periodic Classification of Elements
- Chapter 6: Life Processes
- Chapter 7: Control and Coordination
- Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce?
- Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution
- Chapter 10: Light – Reflection and Refraction
- Chapter 11: Human Eye and Colourful World
- Chapter 12: Electricity
- Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
- Chapter 14: Sources f Energy
- Chapter 15: Our Environment
- Chapter 16: Management of Natural Resources
Comparison of physical and chemical properties of metals and non – metals(Class 10 Science CBSE):-
|1||Physical State||Metals are solid at room|
temperature. Except for mercury and gallium.
exist as solids and gases, except Bromine.
|2||Melting and boiling points||Metals generally have|
high m.pt and b.pt except gallium and cesium.
|Non-metals have low|
m.pt and b.pt except diamond and graphite.
|3||Density||Generally high.||Generally low.|
|4||Malleability and Ductility||Malleable and ductile.||Neither malleable nor|
|5||Electrical and thermal conductivity||Good conductors of heat|
conductors of heat and electricity except graphite.
|6||Luster||Poses shining luster.||Do not have luster|
|7||Sonorous sound||Give sonorous sound|
|Does not give|
|8||Hardness||Generally hard except|
|Solid non-metals are|
generally soft except diamond.
Comparison of Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals:-
|Metal + Oxygen→Metal oxide|
4Na(s) + O2(g) →2Na2O(s)
4Al(s) + 3O2(g) →2Al2O3
Metals form basic oxides
Zn and Al form amphoteric oxides (they show the properties of both acidic and basic oxides)
Most of the metal oxides are insoluble in water Some of them dissolve to form Alkali
Na2O(s) + H2O(l) →2NaOH(aq)
|Non-metal + Oxygen →Non-metal oxide|
C + O2 →CO2
S + O2 →SO2
Non-metals form acidic
CO and HO2O are neutral oxides(they are neither acidic nor basic in nature) Non- metal oxides are soluble in water
They dissolve in water to form acids
SO2 + H2O →H2SO3
|Metals react with water to|
form metal oxides or metal hydroxide and H2 gas is released.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) →2NaOH +
H2(g) + heat
|Non-metals do not react|
with water, steam to evolve hydrogen gas. Because Non-metals cannot give electrons to hydrogen in water so that it can be released as H2 gas.
|Metal + Acid →Metal salt + Hydrogen HCl|
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)→ MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
2Na(s) + H2SO2→ Na2SO4(aq) +H2(g)
Metal + HNO3→ H2 gas is not displaced.
Reason- HNO3 is strong oxidizing agent.
|Non-metals do not react with acids to release H2 gas|
Reason- Non-metals cannot loose electrons and give it to Hydrogen ions of acids so that the gas is released.
Mn + 2HNO3→ Mn(NO3)2 + H2
H2 gas from HNO3
with salt solutions
|When metals react with salt|
solution, more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution.
CuSO4(aq) + n(s)→ ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
|When non-metals react|
with salt solution, more reactive non-metal will displace a less reactive non-metal from its salt solution.
2NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g)→ 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)
|5||Reaction with Chlorine||Metal + Chlorine→ Metal Chloride|
ionic bond is formed. Therefore Ionic compound is obtained. 2Na+ Cl2 → 2NaCl
|Non-metal + Chlorine→Non-metal Chloride covalent bond is formed. Therefore covalent compound is obtained. H2(g) + Cl2 → 2HCl|
|Metals react with hydrogen|
to form metal hydride This reaction takes place only for most reactive metals. 2Na(s)+ H2(g) → 2NaH(s)
|Non-metals react with hydrogen to form hydrides H2(g) + S(l) → H2S(g)|
Properties of ionic compounds
|1.||Physical nature||:||solid and hard due to the strong force of attraction. (generally brittle)|
|2.||Melting point and boiling point||:||have high M.P and B.P, as large amount of heat energy is required to break strong ionic attraction.|
|3.||Solubility||:||soluble in water and insoluble in kerosene and pertrol.|
|4.||Conduction of electricity||:||ionic compounds in solid state—–does not conduct electricity.|
Reason – Ions can not move due to a rigid solid structure. Ionic compounds conduct electricity in the molten state.
Reason- Ions can move freely since the electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions are overcome due to heat.
Frequently asked questions
Is a liquid at room temperature?
Mercury is the metal which is liquid at room temperature
Can be easily cut with a knife?
Sodium and potassium are the metals which can be cut with a knife
Is the best conductor of heat?
Silver is the best conductor of heat
Is a poor conductor of heat?
Mercury is poor conductor of heat.
Explain the meanings of malleable and ductile.
Metals which can be beaten to sheets are said to be malleable.
Metals which can be drawn into thin wires are said to be ductile.
Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene oil?
Sodium is a reactive metals, if kept open it will react with oxygen to explore and catch fire. Sodium metal is kept immersed in kerosene to prevent their reaction with oxygen, moisture and carbon dioxide of air.
Physical Properties of Metals
Melting and Boiling Point
Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. are very soft metals. These can be cut by using a knife.
Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this, big structures are made using metals, such as copper (Cu) and iron (Fe). (Except Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) which are soft metals).
Metals are solid at room temperature except for mercury (Hg).
Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called Sonorous. Sound of metals is also known as Metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are used in making musical instruments.
Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into a thin sheet. Because of this property, iron is used in making big ships.
Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire. Because of this property, a wire is made of metals.
Melting and Boiling Point
Metals have generally high melting and boiling points. (Except sodium and potassium metals which have low melting and boiling point.)
Most of the metals have a high density.
Most of the metals are grey in colour. But gold and copper are exceptions.