NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals PDF Download
Elements are classified broadly into two categories on the basis of properties: Metals: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Aluminium etc.
Non–metals: Chlorine, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur etc. Apart from metals and non-metals, some elements show properties of both metals and non–metals, e.g. Silicon, Arsenic, and Germanium. They are called metalloids
Comparison of physical and chemical properties of metals and non–metals (Class 10 Science CBSE):-
|1||Physical State||Metals are solid in the room|
temperature. Except for mercury and gallium.
exist as solids and gases, except Bromine.
|2||Melting and boiling points||Metals generally have|
high m.pt and b.pt except for gallium and caesium.
|Non-metals have low|
m.pt and b.pt except diamond and graphite.
|3||Density||Generally high.||Generally low.|
|4||Malleability and Ductility||Malleable and ductile.||Neither malleable nor|
|5||Electrical and thermal conductivity||Good conductors of heat|
conductors of heat and electricity except for graphite.
|6||Lustre||Poses shining lustre.||Do not have lustre|
except for iodine.
|7||Sonorous sound||Give sonorous sound|
|Does not give|
|8||Hardness||Generally hard except|
|Solid non-metals are|
generally soft except diamond.
Comparison of Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals:-
|Metal + Oxygen→Metal oxide|
4Na(s) + O2(g) →2Na2O(s)
4Al(s) + 3O2(g) →2Al2O3
Metals form basic oxides
Zn and Al form amphoteric oxides (they show the properties of both acidic and basic oxides)
Most of the metal oxides are insoluble in water Some of them dissolve to form Alkali
Na2O(s) + H2O(l) →2NaOH(aq)
|Non-metal + Oxygen →Non-metal oxide|
C + O2 →CO2
S + O2 →SO2
Non-metals form acidic
CO and HO2O are neutral oxides(they are neither acidic nor basic in nature) Non- metal oxides are soluble in water
They dissolve in water to form acids
SO2 + H2O →H2SO3
|Metals react with water to|
form metal oxides or metal hydroxide and H2 gas are released.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) →2NaOH +
H2(g) + heat
|Non-metals do not react|
with water, and steam to evolve hydrogen gas. Because Non-metals cannot give electrons to hydrogen in water it can be released as H2 gas.
|Metal + Acid →Metal salt + Hydrogen HCl|
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)→ MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
2Na(s) + H2SO2→ Na2SO4(aq) +H2(g)
Metal + HNO3→ H2 gas is not displaced.
Reason- HNO3 is a strong oxidizing agent.
|Non-metals do not react with acids to release H2 gas|
Reason- Non-metals cannot lose electrons and give them to Hydrogen ions of acids so that the gas is released.
Mn + 2HNO3→ Mn(NO3)2 + H2
H2 gas from HNO3
with salt solutions
|When metals react with salt|
the solution, a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution.
CuSO4(aq) + n(s)→ ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
|When non-metals react|
with salt solution, a more reactive non-metal will displace a less reactive non-metal from its salt solution.
2NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g)→ 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)
|5||Reaction with Chlorine||Metal + Chlorine→ Metal Chloride|
an ionic bond is formed. Therefore Ionic compound is obtained.
2Na+ Cl2 → 2NaCl
|Non-metal + Chlorine→Non-metal Chloride covalent bond is formed. Therefore covalent compound is obtained. |
H2(g) + Cl2 → 2HCl
|Metals react with hydrogen|
to form metal hydride This reaction takes place only for most reactive metals.
2Na(s)+ H2(g) → 2NaH(s)
|Non-metals react with hydrogen to form hydrides |
H2(g) + S(l) → H2S(g)
NCERT solution for class 10 Science chapter 3 Properties of ionic compounds
|1.||Physical nature||:||solid and hard due to the strong force of attraction. (generally brittle)|
|2.||Melting point and boiling point||:||have high M.P and B.P, as a large amount of heat energy is required to break strong ionic attraction.|
|3.||Solubility||:||soluble in water and insoluble in kerosene and petrol.|
|4.||Conduction of electricity||:||ionic compounds in solid state—– do not conduct electricity.|
Reason – Ions can not move due to a rigid solid structure. Ionic compounds conduct electricity in the molten state.
Reason- Ions can move freely since the electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions are overcome due to heat.
NCERT solution for class 10 Science Chapter 3 FAQ
Is it a liquid at room temperature?
Can be easily cut with a knife?
Is it the best conductor of heat?
Is it a poor conductor of heat?
Explain the meanings of malleable and ductile.
Metals which can be drawn into thin wires are said to be ductile.
Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene oil?
Physical Properties of Metals
Melting and Boiling Point