Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals

Class 10 Science CBSE Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals : – Elements are classified broadly into two categories on the basis of properties: Metals: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Aluminium etc.

Non – metals: Chlorine, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur etc.Apart from metals and non-metals some elements show properties of both metals and non – metals, e.g. Silicon, Arsenic, Germanium .They are called metalloids

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Comparison of physical and chemical properties of metals and non – metals(Class 10 Science CBSE):-

S.NoPropertyMetalsNon-Metals
1Physical StateMetals are solid at room
temperature. Except for mercury and gallium.
Non-metals generally
exist as solids and gases, except Bromine.
2Melting and boiling pointsMetals generally have
high m.pt and b.pt except gallium and cesium.
Non-metals have low
m.pt and b.pt except diamond and graphite.
3DensityGenerally high.Generally low.
4Malleability and DuctilityMalleable and ductile.Neither malleable nor
ductile.
5Electrical and thermal conductivityGood conductors of heat
and electricity.
Generally poor
conductors of heat and electricity except graphite.
6LusterPoses shining luster.Do not have luster
except iodine.
7Sonorous soundGive sonorous sound
when struck.
Does not give
sonorous sound.
8HardnessGenerally hard except
Na, K
Solid non-metals are
generally soft except diamond.
Comparison of physical and chemical properties of metals and non – metals

Comparison of Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals:-

1Reaction with
Oxygen
Metal + Oxygen→Metal oxide
4Na(s) + O2(g) →2Na2O(s)
4Al(s) + 3O2(g) →2Al2O3
Metals form basic oxides
Zn and Al form amphoteric oxides (they show the properties of both acidic and basic oxides)
Most of the metal oxides are insoluble in water Some of them dissolve to form Alkali
Na2O(s) + H2O(l) →2NaOH(aq)
Non-metal + Oxygen →Non-metal oxide
C + O2 →CO2
S + O2 →SO2
Non-metals form acidic
oxides
CO and HO2O are neutral oxides(they are neither acidic nor basic in nature)  Non- metal oxides are soluble in water
They dissolve in water to form acids
SO2 + H2O →H2SO3
2Reaction
with water
Metals react with water to
form metal oxides or metal hydroxide and H2 gas is released.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) →2NaOH +
H2(g) + heat
Non-metals do not react
with water, steam to evolve hydrogen gas. Because  Non-metals cannot give electrons to hydrogen in water so that it can be released as H2 gas.
3Reaction
with dilute
Acids
Metal + Acid →Metal salt + Hydrogen   HCl
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)→ MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
H2SO4
2Na(s) + H2SO2→ Na2SO4(aq) +H2(g)
HNO3
Metal + HNO3→ H2 gas is not displaced.
Reason- HNO3 is strong oxidizing agent.
Non-metals do not react with acids to release H2 gas
Reason- Non-metals cannot loose electrons and give it to Hydrogen ions of acids so that the gas is released.
Mn + 2HNO3→ Mn(NO3)2 + H2
H2 gas from HNO3
4Reaction
with salt solutions
When metals react with salt
solution, more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution.
CuSO4(aq) + n(s)→ ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
When non-metals react
with salt solution, more reactive non-metal will displace a less reactive non-metal from its salt solution.
2NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g)→ 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)
5Reaction with ChlorineMetal + Chlorine→ Metal Chloride
ionic bond is formed. Therefore Ionic compound is obtained. 2Na+ Cl2 → 2NaCl
Non-metal + Chlorine→Non-metal Chloride   covalent bond is formed. Therefore covalent compound is obtained. H2(g) + Cl2 → 2HCl
6Reaction
with Hydrogen
Metals react with hydrogen
to form metal hydride This reaction takes place only for most reactive metals.       2Na(s)+ H2(g) → 2NaH(s)
Non-metals react with hydrogen to form hydrides     H2(g) + S(l) → H2S(g)
Comparison of Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals

Properties of ionic compounds

1. Physical nature:solid and hard due to the strong force of attraction.  (generally brittle)
2.Melting point and boiling point:have high M.P and B.P, as large amount of heat energy is required to break strong ionic attraction.
3.Solubility:soluble in water and insoluble in kerosene and pertrol.
4.Conduction of electricity:ionic compounds in solid state—–does not conduct electricity.
Properties of ionic compounds

Reason – Ions can not move due to a rigid solid structure. Ionic compounds conduct electricity in the molten state.

Reason-  Ions can move freely since the electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions are overcome due to heat.

Frequently asked questions

Is a liquid at room temperature?

Mercury is the metal which is liquid at room temperature

Can be easily cut with a knife?

Sodium and potassium are the metals which can be cut with a knife

Is the best conductor of heat?

Silver is the best conductor of heat

Is a poor conductor of heat?

Mercury is poor conductor of heat.

Explain the meanings of malleable and ductile.

Metals which can be beaten to sheets are said to be malleable.
Metals which can be drawn into thin wires are said to be ductile.

Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene oil?

Sodium is a reactive metals, if kept open it will react with oxygen to explore and catch fire. Sodium metal is kept immersed in kerosene to prevent their reaction with oxygen, moisture and carbon dioxide of air.

Physical Properties of Metals

Hardness
Strength
State
Sound
Malleability
Ductility
Melting and Boiling Point
Density
Colour

Hardness

Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. are very soft metals. These can be cut by using a knife.

Strength

Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this, big structures are made using metals, such as copper (Cu) and iron (Fe). (Except Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) which are soft metals).

State

Metals are solid at room temperature except for mercury (Hg).

Sound

Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called Sonorous. Sound of metals is also known as Metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are used in making musical instruments.

Malleability

Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into a thin sheet. Because of this property, iron is used in making big ships.

Ductility

Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire. Because of this property, a wire is made of metals.

Melting and Boiling Point

Metals have generally high melting and boiling points. (Except sodium and potassium metals which have low melting and boiling point.)

Density

Most of the metals have a high density.

Colour

Most of the metals are grey in colour. But gold and copper are exceptions.

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