Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 5 Secondary Activities

Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 5 Secondary Activities

Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 5 Secondary Activities

What do you mean by secondary activities?

  • Those activities which convert primary products into more useful commodities are called secondary activities
  • Example-sugarcane to sugar, iron ore to steel or iron rod, cotton to yarn


  • It means the conversion of raw material into more useful and valuable products with the help of machines
  • Example iron ore is made as steel or iron rod


  • It is a Centre where raw materials are converted as useful products

Characteristics of modern large-scale manufacturing

  • Specialisation of skills /methods of production
  • Mechanization- using machines for large production
  • Technological innovation

Organisational structure and stratification of large-scale manufacturing involves

  • A complex machine technology
  • Extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with the less effort and low cost in materials
  • vast capital
  • Large organisation set up
  • Executive bureaucracy Locational factors of industries Geographical factors
  • Access to raw material
  • access to labour and market
  • Access to water supply
  • Availability of energy resources (Hydel Power, Nuclear Power, Thermal Power, Non- Conventional energy resources)
  • Distance of the raw material centers and manufacturing centre Non-Geographical Factors
  • Good management
  • Government policies
  • vast capital
  • Good environment
  • Human knowledge

Classification of industries based on size

  1. Cottage Industries
  2. Small Scale Industries
  3. Large Scale Industries

Cottage industries or household industries

  • Smaller in size and are carried in house only
  • Using available local raw material with the very simple usage of tools
  • Only family members are engaged
  • Produced goods are sold in the neighbouring areas
  • Not require a sophisticated transport network
  • Does not require huge capital
  • Example – foodstuff, mats, tools, furniture making, pottery making, and basket making etc…

Small scale industries

  • Use modern Power drive and machines and a employee local labour as well
  • Raw material is obtained from out side
  • Larger in size than cottage industries
  • Production is sold beyond the local markets
  • Provide employment for a large number of people in the local areas
  • Examples- textiles, Toys making, furniture making, edible oil and Leather goods

Large scale industries

  • Production is in a large scale
  • Sophisticated and hi-tech machines are used
  • Requires huge capital
  • Raw materials are brought from for off places
  • Special care is taken for maintaining quality and quantity of the product
  • Management is complex
  • Finished products are sold in for off places
  • Requires best well-developed transport network system

Based on size of operation and nature of products

  1. Heavy industries and
  2. Light industries

Heavy industries

  • They deal bulky products
  • Heavily depending upon raw material
  • Hence, they are located very close to raw material centre
  • Example iron and steel industries

Light industries

  • They are small in size of operation
  • They deal lighter and compact products
  • Weight is very less
  • Example- electronic industries

Classification of industries based on basic output Basic industries

  • These Industries produce raw material for other industries
  • Example- iron and steel

Consumer goods industries

  • They produce goods for final consumption
  • Example tea, soap, radio, coffee etc…
    • Classification of industries based on input

Agro- based industries

  • Based on agriculture products
  • Example- cotton, sugarcane, edible oil Forest based industries
  • Based on forest products
  • Example- paper, wood, furniture Metallic industries
  • These Industries use different types of metal
    • Two types Ferrous
  • Contains iron in raw material
  • Example -iron and steel industry, motorcars, railway industries Non ferrous
  • Raw materials which don’t contain iron
  • Example- Copper and aluminum

Chemical Industries

  • Based on chemicals
  • Example –fertilizers, Textiles, paper industries, soap industries, glass Industries shampoo industries

Industries based on ownership

  1. Public sector
  2. Private sector
  3. Joint sector

Public sector

  • It is run by the government
  • Profit is not the ultimate motto
  • Welfare of the employee is given the top priority

Private sector

  • Run by individual or group of people
  • Profit is ultimate motto
  • Time bound work
  • Welfare is not at all considered

Joint sector

  • Run by government as well as individual

Footloose industries

  • It can be located in a wide variety of places
  • They are not depending on any specific raw material
  • It is weight loss and can be established anywhere
  • They need small labour force
  • They are generally not polluting the environment
  • The important factor in their location is accessibility by road network

Traditional large scale industrial regions

  • These industries are located near the source of coal
  • Heavy industries and can be transported for long distance
  • Industries are engaged in metal, chemical manufacturing textile production
  • These industries are known as smoke stack industries

Important features of these industries

  • High proportion of employment
  • High-density in housing often of inferior type and very poor services
  • Un attractive environment
  • Problems of unemployment, emigration and land degradation near the industries

The Ruhr coalfield (Germany)

  • The most important industrial region of Germany
  • Steel, coal and iron ore are the backbone of this region
  • Now this industrial region lost its importance by the following reasons
  • The demand for coal is declined
  • Iron ore resources are exhausted
  • Future depends more on new industries like Opel car assembly plant, new chemical plants, Universities ..
  • Industrial waste and environmental degradation

Concept of high Technology industry

  • Hi-   Technology   or   simply   hi-tech   is   the   latest   version   of manufacturing activities
  • It   is   intensive   research-oriented   manufacturing   to   increase production
  • White Collar workers make a large share in the total workforce
  • These highly skilled specialists greatly outnumber the actual production (Blue Collar workers)
  • Example- robotics on the assembly line
  • Electronic control in smelting and refining processes
  • The constant development of new chemical and Pharmaceuticals

Characteristics of high-tech industries

  • Well and neatly Spaced
  • Modern, disposed official plants and lab buildings
  • Factories and storage areas mark the Hi-Tech industrial landscape look
  • Planned business parks for high tech startups


  • Hi- tech industries which are generally concentrated, self- sustained and highly specialised are called Technopolis
  • Example- the Silicon Valley near San Francisco, Silicon Forest near Seattle

Iron and steel industry

  • It is called a basic industry
  • Because it provides raw materials for other industries such as machine tools used for the production
  • It is also called a heavy industry because it uses large quantity of a bulky raw materials
  • Raw materials are iron ore, manganese, coal and limestone

Cotton textile industry

There are three sectors

  • Handlooms
  • Power looms
  • Mill sectors


  • Give employment to Semi skilled workers
  • It needs a small capital investment
  • The sector involves spinning, weaving and finishing up fabrics

Power loom

  • Less labour intensive
  • volume of production increases

Mill sector

  • Highly capital intensive and production is with high skilled and unskilled labour

Problems of cotton textile industry

  • Very tough competition with synthetic fibers
  • Non availability of good cotton
  • Poor technology in developing countries

Vijay Laxmi, with a teaching journey since 2008, specializes in teaching Humanity subjects like Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics, among others. Her expertise enriches the educational content on our platform.