Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 3 Human Development

Short Notes: Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 3 Human Development

Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 3 Human Development

What is meant by human development?

  • It is described as the development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their life
  • people are central to all the development under this concept

Difference between growth and development

  • Both are changing over a period of time
  • Growth is quantitative and value neutral it
  • Has a positive and negative sign
  • Development means a qualitative change which is always value positive
  • Development occurs when there is a positive change in quality
  • Example -development of a city
  • The concept of human development was introduced by Dr Mehboob Ul Haq
  • According to his point of view the people must have a healthy life
  • Chances should be given to develop their talents and skill
  • Freedom should to be given to achieve their goals

Three indicators of human development

  • Long and healthy life
  • Gaining knowledge
  • Leading a decent life

The four pillars of human development

  • Equity
  • Sustainability
  • Productivity
  • Empowerment


  • It refers to make equal access to the opportunities available to everyone
  • It should be irrespective of their gender, race, income and caste


  • It refers to the continuity in the availability of opportunities
  • It means each generation must have a small opportunity
  • All the resources must be used keeping in mind the future
  • Misuse of any resources will create a serious problem in future


  • It refers human work
  • People must be enriched by building capabilities
  • Because human resource is the ultimate resource to develop all other resources
  • Therefore efforts are taken to increase their knowledge, providing better health facilities and better work efficiency


  • It is to make choices in power
  • Power    comes    from    increasing    freedom    and    providing opportunities
  • The policies should be framed for the empowerment of the people
  • The weaker section of society should be focused

Approaches to the Human Development

  • The income approach
  • The welfare approach
  • Basic needs approach
  • Capabilities approach
  • Income approach
    • It is one of the oldest approaches
    • The level of income reflects in the section of society
    • Higher level of income the higher level of human development
  • Welfare approach
    • It refers the targets of all developmental activities
    • The government expenditure goes higher on education, health and social amenities
    • People are not participants in the development
  • Basic needs approach
    • Six basic needs are proposed by International Labour Organisation
    • Health, education, food, water supply, sanitation and housing
    • These basic facilities are assessed to measure the human development

Capability approach

  • It is associated with professor Amartya Sen
  • Building human capabilities in the areas of health, education
  • Access   to   resources   is   the   key   to   increase   the   human development

International comparison

Some interesting facts

  • Size of the territory and per capita income are not directly related to human development
  • Smaller countries have done better than larger countries
  • Example -Sri Lanka and Tobago have a higher rank than India in the human development
  • Similarly Kerala being a small state in India is better than Punjab and Gujarat
Level of human developmentScore in development IndexNumber of countries
Highabove 0.857
MediumBetween 0.5 to 0.49988
Lowbelow 0.532

Countries with high index value- There are 10 countries

Sl.NoCountry NameSl.NoCountry Name
5Canada10United States

Norway tops in human development index in the world

Reasons for high HDI

  • Providing better education and health care
  • Higher investment on social sector
  • Good governance
  • Equal distribution of resources

Countries with medium index value

  • Most of these countries have emerged in the period after the second world war
  • Many countries are rapidly improving in human development by adopting more people-oriented policies and reducing social discrimination
  • These countries have much higher social diversities
  • Many in this group have faced political instability and social uprisings

Countries with low Index value

  • Political turmoil and social instability
  • Civil war
  • Famine and high incidence of diseases
  • Low education status

Vijay Laxmi, with a teaching journey since 2008, specializes in teaching Humanity subjects like Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics, among others. Her expertise enriches the educational content on our platform.