Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope

Short Notes: Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope

Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope

Geography is a subject which deals with the interaction between man and the environment

There are two branches of Geography

  • Physical Geography
  • Human Geography
  • Physical Geography deals with physical features such as mountains, plains, valley, plateau, atmosphere, Ocean etc.
  • Human Geography deals about the mankind spaced over the surface of the earth and their activities

Human Geography is divided into two branches

  • Systematic Geography and regional Geography
  • Systematic Geography is a study about man and his natural environment

Human Geography is defined by various scholars

  • According to Friedrich Ratzel human Geography is the synthetic study of relationship between human Societies and earth surface
  • Ellen C Sample says human Geography is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and unstable earth
  • Vidal- la -Blache defines human Geography offers a new conception of the interrelationship between earth and man
  • A more synthetic knowledge physical governing of the relationship between the living beings

Nature of human Geography

Human Geography is a study about interrelationship between physical environment and socio-cultural environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other.


Naturalisation Of Humans and Humanisation of Nature

  • Concept of friction and heat helped to discover fire
  • A proper understanding of the secrets DNA and genetics enabled to get many ideas in diseases
  • Understanding of laws of aerodynamics helped in developing faster planes

Environmental Determinism

  • It is a type of interaction between primitive old society or human society and strong forces of nature
  • It is known as environmental determinism
  • The environment determines human activities at the stage of the level of technology
  • When the level of technology was very low the human activity was determined completely by the nature
  • In olden days man started to worshipped the nature


  • The people begin to understand their environment and the forces of nature with the passage of time
  • They created possibilities with the resources obtained from the environment
  • Man started to develop the technology and modified the nature
  • For   example,   health   resorts   on   highlands,   urban   sprawl pastures, plain areas sea port in the coastal areas and satellites

Neo determinism or stop and go determinism

  • It was introduced by a scholar namely Griff Taylor
  • He introduced this concept between two ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism
  • It means that human beings can conquer nature by obeying it
  • They have to respond to the red signal and then proceed in their pursuits of development when nature permits the modification
  • It means the possibilities can be created within the limits which do not damage the environment
  • There is no free run without accidents
  • The development should not cause any ozone layer depletion, global Warming and degrading the lands

Different thoughts of human Geography

Welfare or humanistic school of thought

  • Mainly concerned with the different aspects of social well being of the people
  • Aspects like housing, health and education Radical school of thought

It concerns to explain the causes of poverty, deprivation and social inequality

Behavioural school of thought

It laid great emphasis on experience and also on the perception of space by social category based on ethnicity, race and religion etc…

Human Geography Through the Corridors of Time

  • Earlier there was little interaction between different societies and the knowledge about each other was limited.
  • Travelers and explorers used to share information about the areas of their visits.
  • Navigational skills were not developed and voyages were full of dangers.
  • The late fifteenth century witnessed attempts of explorations in Europe and slowly the myths and mysteries about countries and people started to open up.
  • The colonial period provided impetus to further explorations in order to access the resources of the regions and to obtain information.
Fields of human GeographySub fieldsSister disciplines
              Social Geography———–Social science-sociology
Behavioral GeographyPsychology
Geography of social well beingWelfare economics
Geography of leisureSociology
Cultural GeographyAnthropology
Gender GeographySociology, anthropology, women studies
Historical GeographyHistory
Medical GeographyEpidemiology
Urban Geography———Urban studies and planning
  Political Geography———-Political science
Electoral GeographyPsephology
Military GeographyMilitary science
Population Geography—–Demography
Settlement Geography——Urban and rural planning
            Economic Geography——–Economics
Geography of resourcesResource economics
Geography of AgricultureAgricultural science
Geography of industriesIndustrial economics
Geography of marketingBusiness studies, economics, commerce
Geography of tourismTourism and travel management
Geography of international tradeInternational trade

Vijay Laxmi, with a teaching journey since 2008, specializes in teaching Humanity subjects like Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics, among others. Her expertise enriches the educational content on our platform.