Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 4 Primary Activities

Short Notes: Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 4 Primary Activities

Class 12 Geography Key Notes Chapter 4 Primary Activities

What do you mean by primary activities?

  • Primary activities are directly related with land and water
  • These activities include hunting, gathering, pastoral activities fishing, Forestry, agriculture, mining, quarrying

Economic activities

Human activities which generate income are known as economic activities

Types of economic activities

  • Primary activities
  • Secondary activities
  • Tertiary activities
  • Quaternary activities

Primary activities

Hunting and gathering

  • The earliest human beings were depending upon their immediate environment
  • They subsisted on animals hunting, gathering edible plants
  • They ate animal plushCatching fish in the coastal areas
  • The earliest people used primitive tools such as arrows, twigs and these tools are made up of stones
  • Now the number of animals killed was limited
  • The  gathering  is  practiced  in  regions  with   horse  climatic conditions
  • It is done by primitive societies
  • They depend upon plants and animals to satisfy their needs for food, shelter and clothing
  • It requires very less amount of capital investment and technology
  • No surplus is produced

Areas of gathering in the world

  • High latitude zones like northern Canada, Northern Eurasia and southern Chile
  • Low latitude zone areas like Amazon Basin, tropical Africa Northern fringe of Australia and interior parts of Southeast Asia

In modern times gathering is a market-oriented practice. Justify?

Gatherers collect leaves, barks, and nuts of the trees for medicinal uses and they are sold in the market after a small processing

Uses of the collected forest products

BarkPreparing quinine
LeavesPreparing beverages, drugs, cosmetics
NutsTo prepare different foods and oils
Liquid     of trunkMaking rubber, gums and resins


People living in different climatic conditions domesticate animals and they are totally dependent upon geographical environment

Nomadic herding

  • People move from one place to another along with their cattle
  • The movement is depending upon the quality of pastures and water
  • Territory is confined

Pastoral nomadism is practised in three major regions

  • Area extending from Atlantic shore in the North Africa East words Arabian Peninsula China and Central China
  • The second region is Tundra region Eurasia
  • The third region is South West Africa and island of Madagascar
  • The process of migration from mountain areas to the plain area during winter and plain area to mountain area in summer is known as transhumance
  • Example- Gujjar, Bakarwal, Gaddis, Bhotiyas in India

Commercial livestock rearing

  • It is well organised and capital intensive
  • It is practiced in permanent ranches
  • Ranches cover large areas and they are divided into different parcels
  • Only one type of animal is rearedImportant animals are sheep, cattle, goats, and horses
  • It is scientifically maintained and its products are exported to many countries
  • Importance is given on breeding and genetic improvement
  • Countries are New Zealand, Australia, Argentina and united states of America


Types of Agriculture

  • Subsistence agriculture
  • Primitive subsistence agriculture
  • Intensive subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture

  • Subsistence agriculture is one in which the farmers consume all or nearly so of the products locally grown
  • Primitive subsistence agriculture
  • Another name is shifting agriculture
  • It is widely practiced in tribal areas of tropics particularly in Africa south and central America and south east Asia
  • The vegetation is usually cleared by fire and asses of the vegetation is used to add the fertility
  • Hence it is called slash and burn agriculture
  • The patches are very small and cultivation is done by primitive tools
  • As soon as the soil fertility gets over the family members move to other areas and clear the patches and start cultivation
  • It is practiced in tropical forest areas

Problems of shifting cultivation

  • Soil becomes infertile
  • It leads to soil erosion
  • yield is very less

Intensive subsistence agriculture Two types

  • Dominated by wet paddy cultivation
  • Dominated by crops other than paddy

Dominated by the paddy cultivation

  • Rice is the dominant crop
  • Fields are very small due to high density of population
  • Farmers work with the help of family members
  • Machinery is limited and manual labour are more
  • Farm yard manure is used (cow dung)
  • Yield per unit area is high

Dominated by crops other than paddy

  • Different crops are cultivated due to different geographical factors
  • Wheat, soya bean, barley and sorghum
  • In India wheat is grown in western part of Indo- Gangetic plain
  • Millets are grown in dry parts of western and southern India

Plantation agriculture

  • Introduced by the Europeans in the colonies situated in the tropics
    • Example- tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm sugar cane bananas and pineapples

Important characteristics

  • It is a mono cropping system
    • Farming is done with scientific methods and require large investment
    • Skilled and unskilled labour are required
    • Cheap labour is also required
    • Good means of transport and communication is required
    • The British developed tea gardens in India and Sri Lanka, rubber plantation in Malaysia and sugar cane in west Indies

Extensive commercial grain cultivation

  • It is practiced in the interior parts of semi-arid lands of the mid latitude
  • Wheat is the principal crop
  • Other crops like corn barley oats are also grown
  • It is completely mechanised cultivation
  • It is practiced in Eurasian steppes, Canadian Highlands American prairies, the pampas of Argentina, the Wales of South Africa and New Zealand

Mixed farming

  • It is found in the highly developed parts of the world
  • Example- North Western Europe, Eastern North America parts of Eurasia and temperate latitudes of southern continents
  • The farm size is moderate and crops are mixed with wheat barley, oats, maize fodder and root crops
  • Crop   rotation   and   intercropping   play   an  important   role  in maintaining soil fertility
  • Animals are reared with crop cultivation is to give extra income
  • It  requires  very high   capital  to  purchase  from  machineries buildings, chemical fertilizers and green manure
  • Special skill and expertisation are required to the farmers

Dairy farming

  • It is highly capital intensive
  • Capital is required for constructing animal sheds, storage facilities, fodder feeding and milchig machines
  • Emphasis is given on cattle breeding healthcare and veterinary services
  • There is no off season during the year
  • Practiced mainly near the urban and industrial centres
  • Needs good means of transport, refrigeration and other important facilities
  • Main regions are North Western Europe, Cannada, South Eastern Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania

Mediterranean agriculture

  • It is practiced on either side of the Mediterranean Sea (Europe and North Africa)
  • The viticulture is the other name (grape cultivation)
  • The high quality of best wine is produced with the distinctive flavours from the high quality of grapes
  • Also produce olive and figs
  • Fruits and vegetables are grown in winters when there is the great demand in European countries and North American markets

Market gardening and horticulture

  • Cultivation of high value crops such as fruits, vegetables flowers
  • Farms are very small and are located near urban areas
  • It is a labour and capital oriented
  • Importance is given on use of irrigation HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, greenhouse and artificial heating in cold region
  • It is developed in thickly populated industrial area of North Western Europe, Northeastern parts of USA and the Mediterranean region
  • The regions where farmers specialise in vegetables only is known as truck farming

What do you mean by truck farming?

  • The truck covers the distance lies between market area and garden area in an overnight

Co-operative Farming

  • A group of farmers form a cooperative society for more efficient and profitable farming
  • It is very much successful in western European countries like Denmark, Sweden, and Italy
  • The moment has been so successful in Denmark
  • There every farmer is a member

Collective farming

  • It was introduced in Soviet Union to improve efficiency in farming activities and to boost agricultural production for self sufficiency
  • The farmers pool all the resources like land, livestock and labour
  • However, they can keep a small piece of land for the family purpose
  • Yearly target is fixed by the government and output is sold at fixed price
  • The farmers have to pay tax to the government


Factors affecting mining activity

Physical factors

  • It includes the size, grade and the mode of occurrence of the deposits

Economic factors

  • It includes the demand for the mineral, technology available capital to develop infrastructure labour and transport cost

Types of mining

  1. Surface mining (open cast mining)
  2. Underground mining (closed mining)
  • When the ore lies deep below the surface underground mining method (shaft method) has to be used
  • Minerals are extracted through the pipes or passages to the surface
  • It requires lift, drills, haulage vehicles, ventilation system

Problems of closed mining

  • It is very risky
  • Chances for poisonous gases
  • Fire accident and flood
  • Roof collapse

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