Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density and Growth) Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density and Growth)
THE WORLD POPULATION
THREE GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ARE FOLLOWING:-
1. The areas with good availability of water are often densely populated.
2. Plains are densely populated. On the other hand mountains & plateaus are sparsely populated.
3. Areas with harsh climate are sparsely populated. E.g. Deserts & cold polar areas. but areas with suitable climate are densely populated. E.g temperate regions.
THERE ARE A NUMBER OF AREAS WITH HIGH DENSITY OF POPULATION. THIS HAPPENS DUE TO :-
1. Areas with good agricultural land, suitable climate, irrigation facilities & fertile soils are densely populated. E.g South-East Asia & East-Asia.
2. Areas with rich mineral resources, industries, urbanisation & high standard of living have good density of population.
Three COMPONENTS OF POPULATION CHANGE are death rate, birth rate & migration.
|BIRTH RATE||DEATH RATE|
|1. Birth rate is expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand persons.||1. Death rate is expressed as number of death in a particular year per thousand persons in a particular area.|
|2. A high birth rate shows an increasing population.||2. High death rate shows a declining population.|
|3. Birth Rate =||3. Death Rate =|
|PUSH FACTORS||PULL FACTORS|
|1. Push factors are those factors which cause people to move outwards from the place of their origin.||1. Pull factors are those factors which cause people come in a place from outside places.|
|2. Push Factors detract people.||2. Pull Factors attract people.|
|3. Push Factors are Unemployment, poor living condition, harsh Climate, epidemics etc.||3. Pull Factors are better jobs opportunities, better living conditions, peace & stability suitable climate etc.|
|Positive growth of population||Negative growth of population|
|1. When birth rate exceeds death rate.||1. When death rate exceeds birth rate.|
|2. It is increase in population.||2. It is decrease in population.|
|3. It helps in utilising resources||3. It leads to declining resource use.|
When people migrate, the place they move from is place of origin. And the place to which people move is called the place of destination.
Migrants who move in to a new place are called Immigrants & who move out of a place are called Emigrants.
DENSITY OF POPULATION is expressed as number of people living per sq. kilometre or per sq. mile. Density of POPULATION DEPENDS UPON A NUMBER OF FACTORS
GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS Landforms, climate, soils & availability of water.
HISTORICAL FACTORS Places of historical interests become densely populated. E.g. Indo Gangetic Plains.
RELIGIOUS & SOCIAL FACTORS are also main cause of growth of population. The need for a male successor & security in old age results in population growth. However, Family Planning has reduced the growth rate in many countries.
ECONOMIC FACTORS like Agriculture, urban development, industries & transport facilities are also caused high density of population.
According to this theory population of any region changes from high births & high deaths to low births & low deaths as society progresses from rural agrarian & illiterate to urban industrial & literate society.
THREE STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION ARE
FIRST STAGE: –
1. The first stage has high fertility & high mortality because people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics & variable food supply.
2. The population growth is slow.
3. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture where large families are an asset.
4. 200 years ago all the countries of the world were in this stage.
SECOND STAGE: –
1. Fertility remains high in the beginning.
2. It declines with the passage of time.
3. Mortality rate also declines due to improvement in health facilities & sanitation
4. This gap results in high population.
THIRD STAGE: –
1. Both fertility & mortality decline considerably.
2. The population is either stable or grows slowly
3. It deliberately controls the family size.
- SINGAPORE IS THE HIGHEST DENSELY POPULATED COUNTRY IN THE WORLD.
- TEN MOST POPULATED COUNTRIES HAVE 60% OF THE WORLD POPULATION.