Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope) Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
List of the Lesson:
- Geography is a field of study is integrative, empirical and practical
- It studies each and every event on the earth over the space and time
- Human geography studies the relationship between man and nature
- Geo. can be studied through law making or descriptive
There are two approaches of geography:
- Systematic approach
- Regional approach
Physical and human phenomena are described in metaphors using symbols from the human anatomy.
Human Geography: Human geography is the synthetic study of relationship between
human societies and earth’s surface.
Nature of Human Geography:
(a) Human geography studies the inter relationship between the physical environment and socio-cultural environment created by man.
(b) Elements of physical are land, water, soil, climate, vegetation, fauna
(c) Elements of cultural are transport and communication, settlements, crops
Naturalization of Humans:
(a) Man interact with nature with the help of technology
(b) It is not important that what he creates but with what tools he used to create
(c) Technology indicates the level of cultural development of society
(d.) Understanding the nature helps to create technology
- Understanding of friction and heat helped to discover fire
- Understanding DNA helped to eradicate diseases
- Laws of thermodynamics helped to develop fast planes
- Knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology and technology loosens the shackles of environment on human being.
- The interaction between primitive society and nature is called Environmental Determinism.
Humanizations of Nature
- With the development of technology people understood the nature well
- They move from state of necessity to state of possibilities
- Human activities created cultural landscape
- So it is called as possibilism
Non-determinism/ Stop and go Determinism
- Developed by Griffith Taylor
- It is a middle path between environmental determinism and possibilism
- The concept shows that neither is there a situation of absolute necessity nor is there a condition of absolute freedom.
- Sustainable development is the main aim
- The Neo determinism maintains balance between development and nature
Human Geography Through the Corridors of Time
Schools of human geography
Concerned with social well-being of the people:
Radical School: Concerned with causes of poverty, deprivation and social Inequality
Behavioural School: Given importance to lived experience, perception of space by Social categories
Stages Through Corridories of Time.
|Colonial||Exploration & description||Imperialism and trade lead to discover many lands|
|Colonial||Regional analysis||Understanding of parts in totality would lead to understand the whole|
|1930- interwar||aerial||Find the reasons for the uniqueness of a region|
|1950-1960||Apply technology to study geography|
|1970||Emergence of humanistic, radical and behavioral school||Emergence of sociopolitical reality with the help of schools|
|1990||Generalization and apply of universal laws to understand geography|
NCERT Solution for Class 12 Geography Notes chapter wise
Class 12 Geography Notes : Fundamentals of Human Geography
Class 12 Geography Notes: India – People and Economy
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY-NATURE & SCOPE
Human geography is the synthetic study of relationship between human societies & earth’s surface. ‘Ratzel’
“Human geography is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man & the unstable earth.” Ellen
Subfields of human geography are:
- Behavioral geography
- Geography of resources
- Geography of social well being
- Geography of social well-being
- Geography of agriculture
- Geography of leisure
- Geography of industries
- Cultural geography
- Geography of marketing
- Gender geography
- Geography of tourism
- Historical geography
- Medical geography
- Geography of international trade.
HOW HUMAN GEOGRAPHY IS RELATED TO OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES?
- Geography although being an individual subjects, has its link with various other subjects.
- Like Economics, Geography now pays more attention to economic conditions.
- Like Geology, Geography has strong link with the ideographic traditions.
- Like political science, Geography studies the political geography of an area.
NATURALIZATION OF HUMANS
- In the early days human interacted with natural environment.
- They were greatly influenced by the nature.
- They could not do anything against the will of nature.
- The level of technology was very low.
- This interaction was termed as environment determinism.
- Nature was worshipped by them as God.
HUMANIZATION OF NATURE
- Now people began to understand their environment & the forces of nature with the passage of time.
- With social & cultural development, humans develop better & more efficient technology.
- They move from a necessity to a state of freedom.
- Nature provides opportunities & humans make use of them.
- Humans play an important role in modifying nature for their survival which is called Possibilism.The middle path between determinism & Possibilism is called Neo-determinism or Stop & go determinism
SCOPE OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
- Human geography aims to study the regional variations of human life on earth.
- The interactive relationship between man & environment results in a cultural landscape.
- Study of human geography is essential for the study of Economic, demographic & historical sciences.
- It analyses the process of environmental adjustment, regional adaption & spatial organization.
FINCH & TRIVERTHA DIVIDED THE HUMAN GEOGRAPHY IN TWO SECTIONS. FEATURES OF BOTH SECTIONS ARE FOLLOWING: – 2004
- Nature has supreme power.
- It cannot interfere with totally.
- Nature has created human beings.
- With the help of technology human beings have influenced nature to a great extent but not totally.
LUCIAN FAUBRE FOLLOWED THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH IN THE STUDY OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE: 2005
- Great emphasis on lived experiences.
- Perception of space by social categories based on ethnicity, race & region.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WELFARE APPROACH OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ARE FOLLOWING:-2005
- This approach is concerned with different aspects of social well-being of the people.
- Its main aspects are housing, health & education.
- Geographers have already introduced geography of social well-being.
- It looks at human beings as beneficiaries of all development activities;
- It argues for higher government expenditure on education, health, social amenities.
- The government is responsible for increasing levels of human development.
THREE CORE POINTS OF THE DEFINITION OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY GIVEN BY Ellen. C. Semple: – 2005
- Unresting man.
- Unstable earth.
- Changing Relationship between these two aspects.
DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF GEOGRAPHY ARE FOLLOWINGS:-
- WELFARE APPROACH OF GEOGRAPHY
- POSSIBILISM APPROACH
- DETERMINISM APPROACH
- NEO-DETERMINISM APPROACH
- SYSTEMATIC APPROACH
- REGIONAL APPROACH
POSSIBILISM APPROACH– The idea that human beings are controlled by nature was rejected and other geographers who stressed the fact that human beings were free to choose.
- 1. The people begin to understand their environment & the forces of nature.
- With social & cultural development human develop better & more efficient technology.
- Human activities create cultural landscape. 2008
- The imprints of human activities are created everywhere.
DEFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEMATIC VS. REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY.
There are two basic approaches to the study of world geography. THE REGIONAL APPROACH studies the many characteristics of each region (or realm) of the world.
SYSTEMATIC GEOGRAPHY, on the other hand, studies one issue and looks at its spatial variations in all parts of the globe.
LUCIAN FEBVRE was the first to use the word Possibilism, he wrote that there are no necessities but everywhere possibilities and man as master of these possibilities is the judge of their use.
VIDAL BLACHE The lifestyles of people are the product of physical historical and social influences for example it was realized that the cultural context and technological advancement of human determined how they will use the environment.
FEATURES OF DETERMINISM
- Every activity of man is controlled by nature.
- Man is considered a passive factor affected by environmental factors
- Man’s behaviour, decision making power, works are also affected by the nature.
- It considers natural environment Supreme Power which controls all human activities.
Elements of natural environment are forest and natural vegetation, relief, climate.
Elements of cultural environment are population, Urban and rural settlement, agriculture, industries
Human Geography is a synthetic study of relationship between human societies and earth surface. ‘RATZEL’
Human Geography is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and unstable Earth ‘Ellen .C. Semple’
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY is a conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical laws governing our earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhibit it. ‘Paul Vidal de La Blache’
IMPORTANCE OF KNOWLEDGE OF NATURE TO DEVELOP TECHNOLOGY.
1. Knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology because human beings were able to develop technology after they developed better understanding of natural laws.
2. For examples; the understanding of the concept of friction and heat helped us to discover fire.
3. Understanding the secret of DNA and Genetics enabled us to conquer many diseases.
4. We use the laws of aerodynamics to develop faster planes.