Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 10 Human Settlements
A settlement is a cluster of houses in the form of a village, a town or a city. Settlement refers to an organized colony of human being together with the buildings in which they live.
|1. Site is the particular point of land at which a house is located.||1. Situation is the area where a settlement is situated or set up.|
|2. Site if house has relationship with another house.||2. It is the relationship with the locality.|
|3.E.g Mohan’s house is sited to Ram’s house in gali no. 2 Wet point settlement is also a good example of site.||3. AS hill, an Island is the example of the situation of a village or a settlement.|
Bases of classifying settlements are given below:
- Population Size.
- Occupation of the people.
- Functions of the settlements.
- Facilities available.
THE STUDY OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY IS NEEDED BECAUSE
1. The study of human settlement in human geography is very important.
2. It reflects human relationship with the environment.
3. The study of human settlement is the basis of human geography.
FEATURES OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS ARE FOLLOWINGS: Cbse-2004
1. Compact houses are the main feature of urban settlements.
2. Secondary & Tertiary occupations are the main occupations of the people.
3. Some areas of urban settlements are planned having the facilities like sewerage system, wide streets, etc.
4. Good transportation & health facilities are also provided.
5. Good education & sanitation facilities are also provided.
6. Urban settlements are planned.
SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS– Squatter settlements are residential areas in an urban locality inhabited by the very poor who have no access to tenure land of their own. Cbse-2005
1. Squatter settlements have informal settlements.
2. They have lack of ownership. 3. They are inhabited by poor people.
4. They are called by different names like Jhoogi-jhompri In India, Favelas in Brazil & kevettits in Myanmar.
Smaller towns around the congested towns are called Sub-Urbs.
SLUMS are defined as residential areas that are physically & socially deteriorated & in which satisfactory family life is not possible.
MAIN PATTERNS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS ARE: Linear, Circular or square, Star like, Cross helped, T-shaped, Rectangular
DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS ARE: Agriculture, Dairying, Fishing, Animal rearing, Animal husbandry, Mining, Forestry etc.
FEATURES OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS ARE FOLLOWINGS: CBSE-2004
1. These are cluster of houses where the main occupations of people is related to primary activities
2. Rural settlements are closely related to land.
3. Rural settlements are relatively small.
4. Rural settlements lack modern facilities.
5. People have close relations with one another.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH RURAL SETTLEMENT ARE FOLLOWING
1. Supply of water in rural settlements is major problem in developing countries.
2. People living in mountainous & aid areas have to walk long distance to fetch drinking water.
3. Water borne diseases tend to be a common problem.
4. The countries of South Asia face conditions of flood & drought very often.
5. Crop cultivation sequences, in the absence of irrigation, also suffer.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE FOLLOWING:
1. Urban settlements in developing countries have unsustainable concentration of population.
2. Urban settlements in developing countries have congested houses & streets.
3. Urban settlements in developing countries have lack of drinking water.
4. Urban settlements in developing countries have lack of infrastructure.
5. Crime & anti social activities are common in urban settlements in developing countries
6. Urban settlements in developing countries have mismanaged administrative set up.
THERE IS STRIKING DIFFERENCE IN THE EMERGING TRENDS & URBAN GROWTH PROCESSES IN THE DEVELOPED & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. CBSE 2003
1. Asia is fast becoming a region of cities & towns. Its urban population has increased five-fold in last 50 years.
2. In the developed countries urban growth was accompanied by industrialization.
3. In the last 150 years the population of London, Mexico City, Kolkata & Mumbai increased rapidly.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SITE, SITUATION, FORM & THE FUNCTIONS FOR STUDYING THE SETTLEMENTS. CBSE-2003
1. Both site & situation may be studied in relation to the physical environment & cultural heritage.
2. The form of settlement in any particular region also reflects human perception of the natural environment.
3. The functions, linkages & roles reveal the nature of hinterland from which the settlement gets sustenance & the level of development…
EXPLAIN THE REASONS FOR THE COMING UP OF SLUMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA WITH SUITABLE EXAMPLES.
1. Slums are inhabited by those people who are forced to migrate from the rural areas to these urban centres in search of livelihood but are not able to afford proper housing due to high rents and high costs of land.
2. They occupy environmentally incompatible and degraded areas.
3. Developing countries like India face this problem at a large scale.
4. The example of Dharavi, Asia’s largest slum is a striking example of the same.
5. India has a predominance of rural population that migrates to urban areas in search of jobs but since they are illiterate and unskilled, they end up living in drenched housings in slums.
WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WTH SLUMS AREAS? V.imp
1. Lack of safe drinking water is the main problem of slums areas.
2. People are forced to live in congested place.
3. Slums often lack basic facilities.
4. Criminal type’s people often take shelter in such slums.
5. These places are prone to fire hazards.
6. These places are also prone to contaminated diseases.
EXPLAIN ANY THREE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE TYPE OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA.
1. Physical Factors: Such as relief, altitude, drainage, water table, climate & soil play an important role.
2. Cultural Factors: Such as tribal, caste or communal identity are also important in determining the………..
3. Historical Factors: The Northern Plains of India have been exposed to frequent invasions from outside. The villagers preferred to live in compact settlement in order to defend against the invaders.