Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 19 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 19 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 19 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Sustainable development is the development which is done by avoiding the misuse of resources by using them wisely. This development is done by keeping in mind the use of future generation & without harming the environment.
WHAT ARE THE SOCIAL BENEFITS OF ITDP IN THE BHARMAUR TRIBAL REGION?
1 The gaddis of Bharmaur were included in scheduled tribes.
2. The quality of the life of Gaddis improved & the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur & other areas of Himachal Pradesh also decline.
3. This plan laid the highest priority on development of transport, communication, agriculture & allied activities.
POSITIVE IMPACTS OF IRRIGATION ON INDIRA GANDHI CANAL COMMAND AREA:
1. There was a clear transformation in the agricultural economy of the region.
2. Spread of canal irrigation had led to increase in cultivated area & intensity of cropping.
3. The traditional crops sown in the area gram, Bajra & guar (fodder) have been replaced by wheat cotton, groundnut &rice.
4. It resulted in the increase in agriculture & livestock productivity.
WRITE A SHORT NOTES ON DROUGHT PRONE AREA PROGRAMME & AGRO CLIMATIC PLANNING. HOW DO THESE PROGRAMMES HELP IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DRY LAND AGRICULTURE IN INDIA?
DROUGHT PRONE AREA PROGRAMME:
- This programme was initiated during the fourth five year plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought prone areas.
- It aims at creating productive assets to mitigate the effects of droughts.
- The emphasis was lead on integrated development of that area, land development programme, afforestation, grass land development & rural electrification etc.
AGRO CLIMATIC PLANNING:
- Agro-Climatic planning means that crop raising should be planned in a way that is friendly to climatic condition.
- Rice, sugarcane & other water needing crops should be preferred in the areas where adequate rainfall is received.
- In moderate rainfall areas crop like wheat etc. should be planned to be raised.
- In water scarcity areas due to scanty rainfall jowar, Bajra etc. may be raised.
- The above programmes will boost dry land farming in the country
EXPLAIN THE TWO APPROACHES OF PLANNING SECTOR PLANNING means formulation & implementation of the sets of schemes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy E.g. agriculture, irrigation, communication etc.
REGIONAL PLANNING means to draw plan to reduce regional imbalance in development. It brings uniform economic development.
MEASURES OF PROMOTION OF SUSTAINABILITY IN INDIRA GANDHI CANAL COMMAND AREA.
1. The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy.
2. Water intensive crops shall be avoided .people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops like citrus fruits.
3. The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development etc. shall be effectively implemented.
4. The areas affected by water logging & soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
5. Eco development plans shall be encouraged E.g. afforestation, pasture development, shelterbelt plantation.
6. Land allottees having poor economic background shall be given financial & institutional help for cultivation of land.
7. Agricultural & allied activities have to be developed along with other sectors of economy.
HILL AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME.
1. Hill area Development Programme was initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan. It covered 15 districts comprising hilly districts of Uttrakhand, Assam, West Bengal & Tamil Nadu.
2. The National Committee on the development of Backward area recommended tribal sub plan for the development of backward hill areas.
3. Detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn. These programmes aimed at harnessing the swadeshi resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation etc.
TARGET AREA: – To reduce the regional & social imbalance the Planning Commission introduced Target Area Approach. E.G Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Drought Prone Area Development Programme (DPADP).
TARGET GROUP Small Farmer Development Agency (SFDA) & Marginal Farmer Development Agency (MFDA) are the example of Target Group Programme, Which were designed to develop infrastructure.
DESCRIBE THE OVERVIEW PLANNING OF PLANNING PERSPECTIVE IN INDIA.
1. First Five Year Plans was launched in 1951 & covered the period, 1951-52 to 1955-56.
2. Second & Third Five Year Plan covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61 & 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively.
3. Plan Holiday. Two successive droughts during mid sixties & war with Pakistan in 1965 forced a Plan Holiday I 1966-67 & 1968-69.
4. Rolling Plans. This period was covered by annual plans which are also termed as Rolling Plans.
5. The 4th Five Year Plan began in 1969-70 & ended in 1973-74.
6. The 5th Five Year Plan began in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then government one year earlier in 1977-78.
7. Sixth 5 year Plan took off in 1980.
8. Seventh 5 year Plan – 1985-1990
9. 8th 5 year Plan – 1992-1997
10. 9th 5 year Plan – 1997-2002
11. Tenth 5 year Plan – 2002-2007.
12. 11th 5 year Plan – 2007-2012
13. 12th 5 year Plan – 2012-2017. The new name of Planning Commission named as Niti Ayog by Narendra Modi.