Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 22 : NCERT CBSE RBSE and Other State Board Solutions for Class 12 Geography Notes for Chapter 22 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Notes questions answers MCQs Download PDF
Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 22 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
DIFFERENCIATE BETWEEN POLLUTION & POLLUTANTS
|1. The word pollution is derived from a Latin word, ’pollutionen’ which means to make dirty.||1. A pollutant is defined as a form of energy or matter that cause degradation.|
|2. Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our air land & water.||2. Pollutant can be in the form of gaseous, liquid or solid.|
|3. Besides humans, other species are also affected badly by pollution.||3. Pollutants transported by air, water & develop on land may be gaseous, liquid or solid respectively.|
Various sources of Air pollution are dust, odour, fog, fumes, mining, industries, smoke, emission of toxic gases,
MAJOR PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE URBAN WASTE DISPOSAL IN INDIA. CBSE2011, 2012
1. Non collection of urban waste is the main problem of urban life.
2. This waste is left uncollected in the open spaces between houses & wastelands.
3. They cause health hazards & create air & water pollution
4. The dumping of industrial wastes in to rivers causes water pollution.
DESCRIBE THE NATURE OF WATER POLLUTION IN INDIA.
1. Increasing population & industrial expansion has lead to degradation of the quality of water considerably.
2. Surface water available from rivers, canal, lakes, etc. is never pure.
3. It contains small quantities of suspended particles, organic & inorganic substances.
4. Increase in these substances causes water pollution & water become unfit for use.
5. In such a situation, self purifying capacity of water is unable to purify it.
6. Human beings pollute water through industrial, agricultural & cultural activities.
7. Among these activities, industry is the most coil contributor to water pollution.
8. Urban sources of water pollution are sewage, municipal & domestic garbage, industrial effluents etc.
EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH. CBSE2011
1. Air pollution creates bad effects on weather & climate.
2. It spreads the diseases related to lungs, skin, eye & throat.
3. It has also damaging effects on animals & plants.
4. Acid rain is also due to Air pollution.
HUMAN CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION ARE: –
1. Factories cause smoke & ash.
2. Industries emit gases, dust, ash etc.
3. Automobiles release carbon dioxide & lead in the atmosphere.
PROBLEM OF SLUMS IN INDIA:
Slums are residential areas of the least choice, dilapidated houses. There are several problems in the slum areas.
1. Poor hygienic conditions are found in such areas.
2. Slums are not provided by basic facilities such as drinking water, sanitation & other facilities like light & toilet.
3. The houses are so compact that there is no facility of fresh air & ventilation.
4. These areas are so congested that transport facilities cannot be provided.
5. These areas are also lack of parks, school & other urban facilities.
6. Most of the slum population works in low paid, high risk prone, unorganized sectors of the urban economy.
7. There is often a risk of fire hazards.
8. Poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime vandalism, escapism, apathy & ultimately social exclusion.
EXPLAIN THE MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING WATER POLLUTION.
1. Garbage of all types should be thrown in garbage collection centres.
2. Toilets should be constructed in villages & cities according to the local needs of the people.
3. Electric crematorium should be set up so that half burnt or unburnt dead bodies may not be cause to flow in the water.
4. Ban should be imposed for causing dead animals to flow in rivers & other water bodies.
5. Industries should be forced not to cause the industrial waste & sewage flow in the water without treatment the same inside the factories.
6. The use of water in factories should be reduced by developing high technology.
7. For controlling water pollution strict laws should be made & strongly implemented.
“DEGRADATION OF CULTIVABLE LAND IS ONE OF THE MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS THAT ARISE OUT OF FAULTY STRATEGY OF IRRIGATION & AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA.” SUPPORT THE STATEMENT WITH THREE POINTS. CBSE 2011
1. Because of over irrigation saline & alkaline areas have increased in the northern plains. Irrigation also changes the structure of the soil.
2. Use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides degrades the soil by destroying their natural & biological properties.
3. Organic phosphate compounds used to kill insects can stay for longer time in soil destroying micro organism.
4. Over irrigation also reduces the fertility of the soil.