Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 5 Primary Activities
Primary activities are related to the extraction of raw materials from the Earth’s surface. E.g. Agriculture, hunting, gathering, fishing, forestry, animal husbandry etc.
FUTURE OF SHIFTING CULTIVATION IS BLEAK BECAUSE
1. Land is limited; shifting cultivation makes several hectares of land unfit for cultivation.
2. Soil erosion is main problem.
3. In shifting cultivation production is very low.
4. Poverty spreads in the regions of shifting cultivation.
5. Shifting cultivation is discouraged by the government.
MARKET GARDENING IS PRACTISED NEAR URBAN AREAS BECAUSE
1. Market Gardening comprises of high value crops like vegetables, fruits, flowers.
2. High income groups in urban areas consume these products very much.
3. Densely populated urban areas require these products in large quantities.
LARGE SCALE DAIRY FARMING IS THE RESULT OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORTATION & REFRIGERATION BECAUSE OF THE FOLLOWING REASON:
1. Dairy products are perishable. They need quick & adequate available means of transportation so that they reach the destination before decay starts..
2. Refrigeration facilities keep these products intact(Undamaged) for longer periods.
3. Dairy products are carried over long distances due to refrigeration facilities.
4. Refrigerated items do not decay in a day or two.
IMPORTANT FEATURES OF PLANTATION AGRICULTURE ARE:
1. It requires large capital investment, technical support & scientific method of cultivation.
2.Cheap unskilled labour is supplied by the local people while technical & skilled assistance comes from temperate land.
3. Cheap transport is required to link the estates with factories & markets for export of products.
4. Estates or plantation are of very large size, sometimes running into thousands of hectares.
5. A single crop is grown on a large scale over a large area.
TRANCHUMANCE:-Seasonal migration of people with their animals is known as TRANCHUMANCE.
IMPORTANT PLANTATION CROPS FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
1. The French set up cocoa & coffee plantation in West Africa.
2. The British established large tea gardens in India & Sri Lanka, rubber plantation in Malaysia & sugarcane & banana plantation in West Indies.
3. Spanish & Americans set up coconut & sugarcane plantations in Philippines.
4. The Dutch established sugarcane plantations in Indonesia.
|NOMADIC HERDING||COMMERCIAL LIVESTOCK REARING|
|1. Nomadic herding is a primary activity in which herders depend upon animals for food, clothing & shelter, tools & transport.||Commercial livestock rearing is a primary activity in which this activity is done in an organised manner over large farms called ranches.|
|2. It is also called Pastoral Nomadism.||2. It is also called Commercial Livestock Ranching|
|3. Herders move from one place to another in search of pasture & water.||3. Ranches have several parcels when grass of one parcel is finished they move to another parcel.|
|4’Animal products are for domestic consumption.||4. Products of animals are processed & packed for export.|
|5. They do seasonal migration.||5. They do not do seasonal migration.|
|SHIFTING CULTIVATION||SEDENTARY CULTIVATION|
|1. A system in which a patch of forest is cleared for cultivation. After some times when the soil exhausted then field are left fallow & new clearings are made in the forest.||1. Farming of land at a fixed location or permanent fields lead settled life.|
|2. This is the most primitive form of agriculture.||2. It is the better way of agriculture. Great civilisation were built on the foundation of sedentary agriculture|
|3. This is also migratory in nature.||3. This is sedentary in nature.|
|4. It is mainly practised in tropical forests.||4. It is practised in most of the parts of the world.|
|5. It is known by different names in different parts of the world e.g., Jhuming in India, Chengin in Philippines. Roka in Brazil & Masalo in democratic republic of Congo.||5. Commercial farming & plantation agriculture become in existence.|
|SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE||COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE|
|1. Subsistence Agriculture is the type of farming in which crops are grown for local consumption.||1. Commercial Agriculture includes the growing of crops for market.|
|2. Sedentary Agriculture & Intensive agriculture are its main types.||2. Plantation Farming & Extensive Farming are its main types.|
|3. It is practised in densely populated areas of monsoon region like India, Indonesia, China, Bangladesh etc.||3. It is practised in sparsely populated areas of temperate grasslands. E.g. mixed farming, dairy farming.|
|4. Rice is the main crop in South East Asia.||4. Wheat is grown in temperate regions.|
|5. It is an intensive farming & every bit of cultivable land is used.||5. It is an extensive farming & attention is paid to get maximum production.|
|INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE||EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE|
|1. Intensive Agriculture means the application of large amount of labour & capital to small fields to obtain high yield per unit area of land & to produce many crops a year.||1. Extensive Agriculture means highly mechanised farming on large holdings, employing little labour to get a large total yield but it is a capital intensive farming.|
|2. It is carried o in densely populated areas like China, India, North West Europe, etc.||2. It is best developed in sparsely populated areas like Steppes, Prairies & The Pampas & Downs.|
|3. The size of land holding is small.||3. The size of land holding is very large (16000 hectares).|
|4. Much human labour is used. Machinery is not so widely used.||4. It is highly mechanised farming. A small labour force is used.|
IMPORTANCE OF DAIRY FARMING – Dairy Farming is the most advanced & efficient type of rearing of milch animals.
Cattles are kept to provide milk. Milk is used to form many products like butter, cheese, condensed milk etc.
It is practised near urban & industrial areas because 1. These provide neighbourhood market for fresh milk & dairy products. 2. These provide means of transportation, refrigeration, pasteurisation & preservation processes.
*What is Plantation Agriculture? What are its characteristics? Name the areas & crops grown there. (CBSE 2012)