Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Water Resources Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
Chapter 6 Water Resources Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Water Resources Question Answer Part 2
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Which one of the following types describes water as a resource?
- Abiotic resource
- Non-renewable Resources
- Biotic Resource
- Cyclic Resource
Ans. (4) Cyclic Resource
(ii) Which one of the following rivers has the highest replenishable groundwater resource in the country?
- The Indus
- The Brahmaputra
- The Ganga
- The Godavari
Ans. (3) The Ganga
(iii) Which of the following figures in cubic kilometres correctly shows the total annual precipitation in India?
Ans. (3) 4,000
(iv) Which one of the following south Indian states has the highest groundwater utilisation (in per cent) of its total groundwater potential?
- Tamil Nadu
- Andhra Pradesh
Ans. (1) Tamil Nadu
(v) The highest proportion of the total water used in the country is in which one of the following sectors?
- Domestic use
- None of the above
Ans. (1) Irrigation
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) It is said that the water resources in India have been depleting very fast. Discuss the factors responsible for depletion of water resources.
Ans. The factors responsible for the depletion of water resources are as follows:
(i) Increasing population : As a result of increasing population, all the facilities such as houses, shops, roads, offices, pavements, etc. increase to fulfil the increasing demands. This, in turn, decreases the open area for seepage of water into the ground.
(ii) Increasing industries: Most of the stages of manufacturing processes in industries require water. If the number of industries increases, then the water required by them will also increase. Therefore, increase of industries contributes to the depletion of water resources.
(iii) Agricultural activities : India is an agricultural country and agriculture is impossible without water. The water for agriculture is mainly utilised from ground water, rain water and canal water. As there is no rainfall in many places, agriculture cannot be entirely depended on rain water. Also, canal water is available in a few places only. Therefore, ground water is the main source of water for agricultural activities and this causes depletion of water resources.
(ii) What factors are responsible for the highest groundwater development in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Tamil Nadu?
Ans. The ground water utilisation is very high in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Tamil Nadu because these states are advanced agricultural states.
Water is used mainly in irrigation. The share of agriculture sector in total water utilisation is much higher than other sectors. Irrigation is needed because of spatiotemporal variability in rainfall in the states. The large tracts of the country are deficient in rainfall and are drought prone. Further , the high yielding varieties of crops need regular moisture supply, which is made possible only by a developed irrigation systems.
(iii) Why the share of agricultural sector in total water used in the country is expected to decline?
Ans. The share of agricultural sector in total water used in the country is expected to decline because of below given reasons-
1. The industrial and domestic sectors in the country are likely to increase.
2. The total utilizable water resources are also declining.
3. The overuse of groundwater resources has led to decline in the groundwater.
(iv) What can be possible impacts of consumption of contaminated/unclean water on the people?
Ans. According to the statistics of World Health Organisation, one fourth of communicable diseases in India spread through contaminated or unclean water. Contaminated water containing a number of viruses and harmful germs can be detrimental to human health. Drinking contaminated water, in medical term, may cause water-related diseases including diarrhea, bacterial dysentery, cholera, typhoid and many other contagious illnesses.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Discuss the availability of water resources in the country and the factors that determine its spatial distribution?
Ans. India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water resources and about 16 per cent of world’s population.The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869 cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km.
The factors that determine its spatial distribution are-
1. Surface water resources- There are four major sources of surface water.These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. In the country, there are about 10,360 rivers
and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.The mean annual flow in all the river basins
in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km.
However, due to topographical, hydrological and other constraints, only about 690 cubic
km (32 per cent) of the available surface water can be utilised.Water flow in a river depends on size of its catchment area or river basin and rainfall within its catchment area. Some of the rivers in the country like the Ganga,the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge catchment areas. Given that precipitation is relatively high in the catchment areas of the
Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Barak rivers, these rivers, although account for only about one-third of the total area in the country, have 60 per cent of the total surface
2. Groundwater resources- The total replenishable groundwater resources in the country are about 432 cubic km. The Ganga and the Brahamaputra basins, have about 46 per cent of the total replenishable groundwater resources. The level of groundwater utilisation is relatively high in the river basins lying in north-western region and parts ofsouth India.
The groundwater utilisation is very high in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. However, there are States like Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Kerala, etc., which utilise only a small proportion of their groundwater potentials. States like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tripura and Maharashtra are utilising their ground water resources at a moderate rate.
3. Lagoons and Backwaters– India has a vast coastline and the coast is very indented in some states. Due to this, a numberof lagoons and lakes have formed. The States like Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast surface water resources in these lagoons and lakes. Although, water is generally brackish in these water-bodies, it is used for fishing and irrigating certain varieties of paddy crops,coconuts, etc.
(ii) The depleting water resources may lead to social conflicts and disputes. Elaborate it with suitable examples.
Ans. Demand for water is increasing rapidly with the increase of population. As against this, the supply of usable water is limited. Even this limited supply can be depleted or made unusable by excessive utilisation, pollution or careless management. Moreover, all parts of the country do not possess the same quantity of water. Some areas have surplus water while other areas suffer from chronic shortage of water. The increasing shortage of water is creating tension and causing disputes among nations, states, communities and regions.
Most rivers of India are plagued with inter-state disputes. Almost all the major rivers of the country are inter-state rivers and their waters are shared by two or more than the two states. Following inter-state river water disputes are worth mentioning.
- Cauvery Water Dispute between Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
- The Krishna Water Dispute between Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- The Tungabhadra Water Dispute between Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
- The Aliyar and Bhivani River Water Dispute between Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- The Godavari River Rater Dispute between Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Karnataka.
- The Narmada Water Dispute between Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
- The Mahi River Dispute between Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
- The Ravi and Beas Water Dispute between Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir and Delhi.
- The Satluj-Yamuna Link Canal Dispute between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- The Yamuna Wiver Water Dispute between Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi.
- The Karmanasa River Water Dispute between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
- The Barak River Water Dispute between Assam and Manipur.
(iii) What is watershed management? Do you think it can play an important role in sustainable development?
Ans. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.
Watershed management provides a sustainable growth framework for integrated decision-making to help: assess the nature and status of the watershed; identify watershed issues; define and re-evaluate short and long-term objectives, actions and goals; assess benefits and costs; and implement and evaluate actions.
It is correct that it will play an important development in sustainable development:
1. It involves prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater.
2. Watershed management includes conservation and judicious use of all resources.
3. Watershed management aims at bringing about balance between natural resources on the one hand and society on the other. The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.
4. Watershed development projects in some areas have been successful in rejunavating environment and economy.Some of the examples are-
(a) Haryali– Haryali is a watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.
(b)Neeru-Meeru(Water and You): This programme is initiated in Andhra Pradesh.The “Neeru-Meeru” approach involves soil and water conservation from ridges to valley, causes water to flow in dry rivers and streams, revives traditional water harvesting structures, adopts a participatory method to increase the rate of ground water recharge, takes up rainwater-harvesting structures in urban areas, promotes recycling of waste water and checks the pollution in water bodies through seepage.
(c)Arvary Pani Sansad: It was initiated in Alwar, Rajasthan. They have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc. through people’s participation. Tamil Nadu has made water harvesting structures in the houses compulsory. No building can be constructed without making structures for water harvesting.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Water Resources Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
State three reasons for scarcity of water and declining availability of water.
(i) Increasing demand
Name four sources of surface water.
Rivers, Lakes, Tanks, Ponds.
What is the total number of rivers in India (with a length more than 1.6 km) ?
State three states with high use of groundwater.
Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu.
Mention any two sources of water pollution by human beings in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
(1) Urban sources—-sewage, municipal and domestic garbage.
(2) The disposal of industrial effluents into water.
Which element has concentrated in water in Maharashtra ?
What do you mean by clean water ?
When water is without unwanted foreign substances.
Which three programmes have been started under Watershed Management ?
Haryali, Neeru-Meeru, Arvary Pani Sansad.
When was Water Prevention Act passed ?
Name any two water conservation techniques adopted in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Rainwater harvesting arid Watershed management.
How can you help in improving the quality of water in your locality ?
We can improve the quality of water in our locality.
(i) Disposal of Garbages and Municipal Sewages in proper place not directly into the rivers, lakes or ponds.
(ii) Recycle the industrial effluents before its entering in the river.
Water Resources Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Describe the ground water resources in India.
Groundwater Resources. The total replenishable groundwater resources in the country are about 432 cubic km. The Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins have about 46 percent of the total replenishable groundwater resources. The level of groundwater utilisation is relatively high in the river basins lying in north-western region and parts of south India.
‘What are positive effects of irrigation ?
- Provision of irrigation makes multiple cropping possible.
- It has also been found that irrigated lands have higher agricultural productivity than unirrigated land.
- The high yielding varieties of crops need regular moisture supply, which is made possible only by developed irrigation systems.
- This is why that green revolution strategy of agriculture development in the country has largely been successful in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
How do human beings pollute the water through industrial and agricultural activities? Explain. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Industries produce several undesirable products which pollute water bodies. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals. Industrial wastes, polluted waste water, poisonous gases, chemicals, metals dust are disposed off in running water. The poisonous elements reach the rivers and water bodies which pollute the bio system of these waters.
India has traditionally been an agrarian economy and about two-third of its population has been dependent on agriculture. Irrigation is needed because of spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the country and pollute water. Some pollutants also seep into earth and pollute the groundwater.
Punjab and Haryana states have adequate water resources, but groundwater table has gone lower. Why ?
In Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh more than 85 percent of their net sown area is under irrigation. Wheat and rice are grown mainly with the help of irrigation in these states. Of the total net irrigated area 76.1 percent in Punjab and 51.3 percent in Haryana are irrigated through wells and tube wells. This shows that these states utilise large proportion of their groundwater potential which has resulted in groundwater depletion in these states.
“Indiscriminate use of water by- increasing population and industrial expansion has led to degradation of the water quality considerably in India.” Explain the values that can help in maintaining the quality of water. (CBSE2018)
Water quality refers to purity of water quality of water suffers from its large scale pollution almost throughout the country, it has been estimated that three fourths of the surface water in India is polluted water. Following steps are necessary for conservation of water resources.
- Developing water-saving technology and methods.
- Preventing pollution of water.
- Encouraging watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in long run.
Why is conservation of water necessary ? State its two methods. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Why is conservation of water essential in India? Explain any three different methods of water conservation with examples. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Water Conservation and Management. Since there is a declining availability of fresh water and increasing demand, the need has arisen to conserve and effectively manage this precious life giving resource for sustainable development. Given that water availability from sea/ocean, due to high cost of desalinisation, is considered negligible.
India has to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws, and adopt effective measures for its conservation. Besides developing water saving technologies and methods, attempts are also to be made to prevent the pollution. There is a need to encourage watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse, and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in long run.
Name the low cost techniques to recharge groundwater.
- Roof water-harvesting.
- Refilling of dug wells.
- Recharging of hand pumps.
- Construction of percolation pits.
- Trenches around fields.
- Bundhs and stop dams on rivulets.
What are the objectives of Rainwater-harvesting ?
- Soil conservation.
- Conservation of water.
- Conservation of arable land.
- Development of horticulture.
- Development of forestry and silvi-culture.
- Conservation of environment.
- Increase in agricultural output.
- Checking environmental degradation.
What are the aims of Rainwater harvesting ?
Examine the importance of ‘rain water harvesting*. (Delhi 2019)
Rainwater Harvesting. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater locally in subsurface water reservoirs to meet the household needs. Objectives of the rainwater-harvesting are to:
- Meet the ever increasing demand for water.
- Reduce the run-off which chokes drains.
- Avoid the flooding of roads.
- Augment the groundwater storage and raise the water table.
- Reduce groundwater pollution.
- Improve the quality of groundwater.
- Reduce the soil erosion
- Supplement domestic water requirement during summer and drought.
Describe the Water Resources of India.
Water Resources of India.
(1) India accounts for about 2.45per cent of world’s surface area, 4 percent of the world’s water resources and about 16 percent of world’s population.
(2) The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km.
(3) The availability from surface water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869 cubic km.
(4) Out of this, only 60 percent can be put to beneficial uses.
(5) Thus, the total utilisable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km.
Describe the use of water resources in different sectors.
“Scarcity of water on account of its increased demand, possess possibility the greatest demand in India.” Analyse the statement. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Water Demand and Utilisation
1. Agricultural sector. India has traditionally been an agrarian economy, and about two-third of its population has been dependent on agriculture. Hence, development of irrigation to increase agricultural production has been assigned a very high priority in the Five Year Plans.
2. Multipurpose projects. Multipurpose river valley projects like the Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakund, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc., have been taken up. In fact, India’s water demand at present is dominated by irrigational needs. Agriculture accounts for most of the surface and groundwater utilisation, it accounts for 89 per cent of the surface water and 92 per cent of the groundwater utilisation.
3. Industrial sector. The share of industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the ground water, the share of domestic sector is higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation as compared to groundwater. The share of agricultural sector in total water utilisation is much higher than other sectors. However, in future, with development, the shares of industrial and domestic sectors in the country are likely to increase.
Why is irrigation necessary in India ? Give examples.
Examine the importance of irrigation in India contexts. (Delhi 2017)
Explain the importance of irrigation for agriculture in India. (CBSE 2010)
Water for Irrigation. In agriculture, water is mainly used for irrigation.
(1) Irrigation is needed because of spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the country.
(2) The large tracts of the country are deficient in rainfall and are drought prone.
(3) North-western India and Deccan plateau constitute such areas.
(4) Winter and Summer seasons are more or less dry in most parts of the country.
(5) Hence, it is difficult to practise agriculture without assured irrigation during dry seasons. Even in the areas of ample rainfall like West Bengal and Bihar, breaks in monsoon or its failure creates dry spells detrimental for agriculture.
(6) Water needs of certain crops also makes irrigation necessary. For instance, water requirement of rice, sugarcane, jute, etc. is very high which can be met only through irrigation.
Why is the demand of water for irrigation increasing day by day in India ? Explain any three reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2011, Outside Delhi 2019)
In agriculture, water is mainly used for irrigation.
- Irrigation is needed due to variable rainfall in India.
- Drought prone areas like N-W India and Deccan needs irrigation.
- Dry seasons of winter and summer need irrigation for agriculture.
- Irrigation is needed during dry season.
- Certain crops like rice, sugarcane, jute require large water supply.
- Multiple cropping needs irrigation.
- HYV crops need regular water supply.
- Success of green revolution depends upon irrigation.
Give examples of Recycling and Reuse of Water.
Recycle and Reuse of Water. Another way through which we can improve fresh water availability is by recycle and reuse. Use of water of lesser quality such as reclaimed waste-water would be an attractive option for industries for cooling and fire fighting to reduce their water cost. Similarly, in urban areas water after bathing and washing utensils can be used for gardening.
Water used for washing vehicle can also be used for gardening. This would conserve better quality of water for drinking purposes. Currently, recycling of water is practised on a limited scale. However, there is enormous scope for replenishing water through recycling.
What are the two water problems in India ? Explain with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 11)
Why is the quality of water deteriorating in India? Explain with ‘ examples. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Due to increase in population, the availability of water is decreasing. The two main water problems are:
(i) Deterioration of Water Quality : Quality refers to purity of water, or water without unwanted foreign substances. Water gets polluted by foreign matters such as micro-organisms, chemical, industrial and other wastes. Such matters deteriorate the quality of water and render it unfit for human use.
When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water. This results in pollution of water whereby quality of water deteriorates affecting aquatic systems. Sometimes, these pollutants also seep into earth and pollute groundwater. The Ganga and the Yamuna are the two highly polluted rivers in the country.
(ii) Water Conservation and Management :
Since there is a declining availability of fresh water and increasing demand, the need has arisen to conserve and effectively manage this precious life giving resource for sustainable development. Given that water availability from sea/ocean, due to high cost of desalinisation, is considered negligible,
India has to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws, and adopt effective measures for its conservation.
Besides developing water saving technologies and methods, attempts are also to be made to prevent the pollution. There is need to encourage watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse, and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in long run.
Water Resources Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Describe the main features of India’s National Water Policy.
Highlights of India’s National Water Policy, 2002 : The National Water Policy, 2002 stipulates water allocation priorities broadly in the following order: drinking water, irrigation, hydro-power, navigation, industrial and other uses. The policy stipulates progressive new approaches to water management. Key features include:
(1) Irrigation and multi-purpose projects should invariably include drinking water component, wherever there is no alternative source of drinking water.
(2) Providing drinking water to all human beings and animals should be the first priority.
(3) Measures should be taken to limit and regulate the exploitation of groundwater.
(4) Both surface and groundwater should be regularly monitored for quality. A phased programme should be undertaken for improving water quality.
(5) The efficiency of utilisation in all the diverse uses of water should be improved.
(6) Awareness of water as a scarce resource should be fostered.
(7) Conservation consciousness should be promoted through education, regulation, incentives and disincentives.
Describe the methods and effects of Rainwater Harvesting.
Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is a method of capturing and storing rainwater for various uses. It is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers.
- It is a low cost and eco¬friendly technique for preserving every drop of water by guiding the rain water to bore well, pits and wells.
- Rainwater harvesting increases water availability.
- It checks the declining ground water table.
- It improves the quality of groundwater through dilution of contaminants like fluoride and nitrates.
- It prevents soil erosion, and flooding and arrests salt water intrusion in coastal areas if used to recharge aquifers.
Methods. Rainwater harvesting has been practised through various methods by different communities in the country for a long time. Traditional rainwater harvesting in rural areas is done by using surface storage bodies like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks, etc.
In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting structures locally known as Kund or Tanka (a covered underground tank) are constructed near or in the house or village to store harvested rainwater to understand various ways of rainwater harvesting.
Effects. There is a wide scope to use rainwater harvesting technique to conserve precious water resource. It can be done by harvesting rainwater on rooftops and open spaces. Harvesting rainwater also decreases the community dependence on groundwater for domestic use.
Besides bridging the demand supply gap, it can also save energy to pump groundwater as recharge leads to rise in groundwater table. These days rainwater harvesting is being taken up on massive scale in many states in the country. Urban areas can specially benefit from rainwater harvesting as water demand has already outstripped supply in most of the cities and towns.
What is Water Pollution ? Discuss- the methods and rules to check it. ;
Prevention of Water Pollution. Available water resources are degrading rapidly.
(1) The major rivers of the country generally retain better water quality in less densely populated upper stretches in hilly areas.
(2) In plains, river water is used intensively for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. The drains carrying agricultural (fertilisers and insecticides), domestic (solid and liquid wastes), and industrial effluents join the rivers.
(3) The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season when the flow of water is low.
Polluted Rivers. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources at 507 stations. The data obtained from these stations show that organic and bacterial contamination continues to be the main source of pollution in rivers.
The Yamuna river is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are : the Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, the Gomti at Lucknow, the Kali, the Adyar, the Cooum (entire stretches), the Vaigai at Madurai and the Musi of Hyderabad and the Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi. Groundwater pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride and nitrates at different parts of the country.
Examine the success of watershed management in Jhabua District of Madhya Pradesh. (CBSE – 2015)
A case study for Water Shed Management Location: Jhabua district is located in the westernmost agro-climatic zone in Madhya Pradesh. It is, in fact, one of the five most backward districts of the country. It is characterised by high concentration of tribal population (mostly Bhils).
Problems: The people suffer due to poverty which has been accentuated by the high rate of resource degradation, both forest and land. The watershed management programmes funded by both the ministries of “Rural Development” and “Agriculture”, Government of India, have been successfully implemented in Jhabua district which has gone a long way in preventing land degradation and improving soil quality.
Programmes: Watershed Management Programmes acknowledge the linkage between land, water and vegetation and attempts to improve livelihoods of people through natural resource management and community participation. In the past five years, the programmes funded by the Ministry of Rural Development alone (implemented by Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Watershed Management) has treated 20 per cent of the total area under Jhabua district.
The Petlawad block of Jhabua is located in the northernmost part of the district and represents an interesting and successful case of Government-NGO partnership and community participation in managing watershed programmes. The Bhils in Petlawad block, for example (Sat Rundi hamlet of Karravat village), through their own efforts, have revitalised large parts of common property resources. Each household planted and maintained one tree on the common property.
They also have planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social-fencing of these lands for at least two years. Even after that, they say, there would be no open grazing on these lands, but stall feeding of cattle, and they are thus confident that the pastures they have developed would sustain their cattle in future.
Water Resources Important Extra Questions HOTS
Explain any three factors responsible for depletion of water resources. Examine any two legislative measures for controlling water pollution in India.(C.B.S.E. 2013)
Deplection of water resources:
Water resources in India are very rapidly decreasing. It is due to the following reasons:
- The use of water is increasing due to increasing population.
- The Industrial sector is using water resources at a fast rate.
- Water is used for irrigation to increase the agricultural productivity.
- Water pollution is increasing.
Legislative measures :
(i) The legislative provisions such as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 and Environment Protection Act 1986, have not been implemented effectively.
(ii) The Water Cess Act 1977, meant to reduce pollution has also made marginal impacts. There is a strong need to generate public awareness about the importance of water and the impacts of water pollution. The public awareness and action can be very effective in reducing the pollutants from agricultural activities, domestic and industrial discharge.
Analyse the economic and social values of rainwater harvesting. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Economic and Social values of rainwater.
- It meets the ever increasing demand of water.
- It prevents the flooding of roads.
- It help to save energy.
- It helps in the economic development of a country.
- It reduces groundwater pollution.
Describe the Jal Kranti Abhiyan.
In 2015-16 the Government of India launched the Jal Kranti Abhiyan with an aim to ensure water security through per capita availability of water in our country. In different regions of India people had practised their traditional knowledge of water conservation to ensure water availability. This Abhiyan aims at involving local bodies, NGO, etc. regarding its objectives.
Following are some activities of this Abhiyan:
- One water stressed village is selection in each 672 districts of the country to generate a Jal Gram.
- Abatement of pollution.
- Trough social media creating mass awarness.