Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth & Composition Question Answer NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B – India People and Economy Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth & Composition
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth & Composition Question Answer
1. Choose the right answer of the following from the given options.
(i) India’s Population as per 2001 census is:
- 1028 million
- 3182 million
- 3287 million
- 20 million
Ans. (1) 1028 million (it is 1210.2 million according to 2011 census)
(ii) Which one of the following states has the highest density of population in India?
- West Bengal
- Uttar Pradesh
Ans. (1) West Bengal
(iii) Which one of the following states has the highest proportion of urban population in India according to 2001 Census?
- Tamil nadu
Ans. (1) Tamil Nadu
(iv) Which one of the following is the largest linguistic group of India?
- Sino – Tibetan
- Indo – Aryan
Ans. (2) Indo – Aryan
2. Answer the following question in about 30 words.
(i) Very hot and dry; and very cold and wet regions of India have low density of population. In this light, explain the role of climate on the distribution of population.
Ans. Climate plays an important role in determining the density of population.Of all the climatic factors, twin elements of rainfall and temperature play the most important role in determining the population of an area.Extremes of climate discourage the concentration of population. Such climates include the too cold climate of Himalayas, and the too hot and dry climate of the Thar Desert. A moderate climate, on the other hand, is favourable for population.
As we move from the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta in the east towards the Thar Desert in the west, the amount of rainfall and consequently the density of population decrease. The Assam valley in the north-east and the Circars coast on the Bay of Bengal has moderate density of population although these areas receive heavy rainfall. Similarly, southern face of the Himalayas is scarcely populated though this area receives sufficiently high rainfall.
(ii) Which states have large rural population in India? Give one reason for such a large rural population.
Ans. India has 640,867 villages according to the Census 2011 out of
which 597,608 (93.2 per cent) are inhabited villages.However, the distribution of rural population is not uniform throughout the country. But still, the states like Bihar and Sikkim have very high percentage of rural population.
The most important reason is both Bihar and Sikkim are highly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood.In Bihar the agriculture sector holds the key of the state’s economy by contributing more than one-fourth (26.51 percent) to GDP (at 1999 constant price) in 2008-09 and providing employment to 81 percent of workforce in the state.It also assumes great importance because near about 90 percent of the population of the state living in rural areas are directly or indirectly depend on agriculture activities for their livelihood.
Even the economy of Sikkim is linked with agriculture that serves as the source of livelihood and economic security of sizeable native population. The growth, however, has been restricted because of biotic and abiotic factors. It is estimated that over 80 per cent of the rural population depends on agriculture sector for economic, food, and nutritional security.
(iii) Why do some states of India have higher rates of work participation than others?
Ans. In India poor states have higher participation rate than others. But it is not a good signal. In these areas, women, children and the old people have to work so as to arrange a square meal for the family. Parents are unable to send their children to schools and use them as labourers in their fields. Morever, primary activities are labour intensive and hence demand more labour. Above all, working in primary activities does not require much training and specialised skill.
(iv) ‘The agricultural sector has the largest share of Indian workers.’ – Explain.
Ans. Yes, it is right that the agricultural sector has the largest share of Indian workers.The share of agriculture in employment was 48.9 per cent of the workforce. In other words Agriculture is the principal source of livelihood for more than 58% of the population of this country. As per the Economic Survey the sector share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 17.4 in 2015-16. Agriculture sector provides great employment opportunities for rural people/youth on a large scale for their livelihood and also provides an entrepreneurship.
3. Answer the following question in about 150 words.
(i) Discuss the spatial pattern of density of population in India.
Ans. The spatial variation of population densities in the country which ranges from as low as 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh to11,320 persons in the National Capital Territory
Among the northern Indian States,Bihar (1106), West Bengal (1028) and and Uttar
Pradesh (829) have higher densities.
The availability of agricultural land, depth and quality of soils, and availability of water resources, coupled with favourable climatic conditions, surface configuration, possibility of easy transportation etc. have determined the patterns of population distribution in the country. The single largest concentration of population occurs in the plains of the north, particularly in the Ganga plain.
Stretching from the river Yamuna in the west to the delta plains of West Bengal in the east, and bounded by the Himalayas in the north and the peninsular plateaus in the south, the Ganga plain is one of the most extensive and thickly populated regions of the world. On a geographic area of nearly 12 per cent of the country, the plain accounts for more than one-third of the population.
Other pockets of heavy concentration of population, though less extensive than the Ganga plain, can be seen in the southern parts of the Indian peninsula along the coastal plains of Kerala (860)and Tamil Nadu(555).
In addition, the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari and the Krishna in the eastern coast also exhibit a thick concentration of population. By contrast, the whole of the upland plateaus, the Thar desert and the mountainous and hilly regions of the north and northeast contain very sparse population. The upland plateaus are characterized by rugged topography and poor soils. In addition, unfavorable climatic conditions and shortage of water for any large-scale agricultural activities have resulted in overall sparse population in the region.
Likewise, the mountainous character and difficult terrain, coupled with lack of connectivity and paucity of agricultural lands in the Himalayas and in the northeast, have led to sparse population. In the arid and semi-arid regions of the northwest population is highly clustered around water points. In the northeast, the Assam valley stands conspicuous with denser concentration of population as compared to the neighbouring hilly region.
(ii) Give an account of the occupational structure of India’s population.
Ans.Occupations can be broadly classified into three categories, viz., primary, secondary and tertiary. (i) (a)The primary occupations include all those essential activities such as agriculture and allied activities like animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, poultry farming etc.
(b)Secondary activities include manufacturing industries composed of both large and small scale and mining.
(c)Tertiary activities include all other activities like transport, communication, banking, insurance, trade etc.
The occupational structure indicated the distribution as well as absorption of population into these various types of occupations.Occupational distribution of population reflects on the degree of development and the diversification achieved in an economy. Let us now turn our discussion on the occupational structure of India. The occupational structure of India clearly reflects a high degree of backwardness prevailing in Indian economy.
Occupational Structure during 1951-2001:
After independence and especially after the introduction of planning in India, attempt was made by the planning to accelerate the process of industrialisation and also to change the occupational structure by transferring a section of working force from agriculture to secondary and tertiary sectors.
1.During the period 1951-71, the proportion of work force engaged in the primary sector remained constant at 72.1 per cent. In-spite of heavy investment made on manufacturing and service sector during these two decades of planning the absorption capacity of secondary and tertiary sectors jointly remained the same at 28 per cent of the total work force.
2. Again during the next 1971-2000 period, the proportion of work force engaged in the primary sector declined marginally to 56.7 per cent. Another noticeable change that was recorded was that the proportion of cultivators declined from 50 per cent in 1951 to 38.4 per cent in 1991 and that of agricultural labourers increased horn 20 per cent to 26 per cent during the same period.
This shows the growing concentration of land in the hands of rich and well-to-do farmers and the transformation of small and marginal farmers into landless agricultural labourers. Moreover, the proportion of work force engaged in the secondary sector increased marginally from 11.2 per cent to 17.5 per cent during the 1971-2000 period and that of engaged in tertiary sector increased slightly from 16.7 per cent to 25.8 per cent during the same period.
3.The number of female workers is relatively high in primary sector, though in recent years there has been some improvement in work participation of women in secondary and tertiary sectors.
|Sector||Persons||% to total Workers||Male||Female|
|Sectoral Composition of work force in India, 2001|
The participation rate in secondary and tertiary sector has registered an increase. it indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm-based occupations to non-farm based ones, indicating a sectoral shift in the economy of the country.
4.There are regional variations in the occupational structure. For example, the states like Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have very large shares of cultivators. On the other hand, states like Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Mahdya Pradesh have higher proportion of agricultural labourers.The highly urbanised areas like Delhi, Chandigarh and Pondicherry have a very large proportion of workers being engaged in other services.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is the total population of India according to census 2011 ?
121.02 crores (16.7% of total population of the world).
Where does India rank in the world as regards population and area ?
When was the first complete census held in India ?
What is the average density of population in India ?
382 persons per sq. km.
Which state has the highest density of population in India ? Also mention density.(C.B.S.E. 2009)
Bihar—1102 persons per sq. km.
What is the average annual rate of growth of population in India ?
What is the average birth rate and death rate in India ?
Birth rate 21 per thousand, death rate 7.9 per thousand.
Name the state of India with the highest literacy rate as per 2011 census. (C.B.S.E. 2016)
What is the total number of villages in India ?
6,40,867 (2011 data)
Which state has the highest population in India ?
Uttar Pradesh—20 crores.
Which state has lowest population in India ? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Name the state of India having the least share of population according to the Census 2011. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
State three clusters of high density of population.
Northern plain, East-coastal plain and Deltas.
Name two types of population growth.
(i) Negative growth rate. When the population decreases.
(ii) Positive growth rate. When the population increases.
Which state has the highest percentage of rural population ?
Arunachal Pradesh (94.50%).
What do you mean by urbanisation ?
The process of society, transformation from a rural to urban population is known as urbanisation.
Which is the most urbanised state of India ?
What is the total number of males and females in India ?
What is the average sex ratio in India ?
940 females per 1000 males.
Which state has the highest sex’ ratio in India ?
Kerala—1084 females per 1000 males.
Which state has the lowest sex ratio in India ?
What does the proportion of literate population of a country indicate? (Sample Paper 2018-19)
It indicates socio-economic development.
Which language is spoken by most of people in India ?
Hindi (33.73 crores).
Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
India is a land of villages. Give two points to support it.
(i) About 68.84 per cent of people live in villages.
(ii) There are 6.40 lakh villages in India.
In Delhi, in 2011, the total population was 1,67,53,235 and the total area was 1483 sq. kms. Calculate density of population.
Density of population
= Total Population Total area =1,67,53,2351483
= 11297 persons per sq. km.
Compare the population and density of population of India and China.
China has a total population of 134 crores while the total population of India is 121.02 crores. The density of population in China is 144 persons per sq. km. while India has a density of population of 382 persons per sq. km. Thus China has more population, while India has more density of population.
‘The distribution of population is highly uneven in India.’ Give three examples.
India has an uneven distribution of population:
(i) Plains have more population than mountains, deserts and forested lands have less population.
(ii) Large states have greater population.
(iii) River basins and coastal plains have dense population.
State the areas of low density of population. Give reasons.
Areas with density of below 200 persons per sq. km are sparsely populated. These are :
- Major parts of Rajasthan
- Madhya Pradesh
- Western Odisha
- Eastern Karnataka
- Central parts of Andhra Pradesh.
Thus this extensive tract of low density extend from the Aravallis in the west to Odisha in the east.
Reasons for low density :
- Hilly and dissected topography.
- Shallow and poor soils.
- Low rainfall.
- Forested land.
- Desert area.
- Availability of water is low.
What are pull factors ?
When people, migrate in search of better economic opportunities, jobs, employment and better living conditions, These are called pull factors. Millions of people were attracted by the big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi.
What are push factors ?
The factors compelling people to leave the place of residence are called push factors. This is due to poverty, umemployment, high pressure of population and economic depression. Migration to big urban cities take place due to marriage, social insecurity, better social, cultural and health facilities.
What do you mean by population* composition ? State its main attributes.
Population composition refers to the physical, socio-cultural and economic attributes of the population. These include age, sex, place of residence, language, religion, marital status, ethnicity, literacy, education and occupation.
The primitive communities societies lived in complete harmony with their natural environment and as such the humans were naturalised. Support the statement. (CBSE 2018)
(i) The primitive society live in complete harmony with their natural environment.
(ii) It is realized that in all such cases nature is a powerful force worshipped, severed and conserved.
(iii) There is direct dependence of human beings on nature for resources which sustain them.
Which five states of India have more than half the urban population of India ? What is the position of Uttar Pradesh
The five states—Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have 51% of the total urban population of India. Uttar Pradesh has the highest urban population of India, but only 31% of the total population lives in urban towns. This is due to rural background.
State four reasons for declining sex ratio.
(i) More males are born than females.
(ii) Females die at infancy and during the reproductive period.
(iii) General neglect of females is largely responsible for high female sex mortality at childhood.
(iv) Pre-birth sex determination leads to female foeticide.
Distinguish between rural population and urban population.
Explain any three characteristics each of rural and urban composition of population in India. (Outside Delhi 2019)
|Urban Population||Rural Population|
|1.||Manufacturing and trade are the main occupations of urban people.||1. Agriculture is the main occupation of rural people.|
|2.||The urban population is provided with all the basic facilities of life.||2. The rural population is not provided with modern facilities.|
|3.||The density of population is high in urban areas.||3. The density of population is low in rural areas.|
Explain three differences between a main worker and a marginal worker.
|Main Worker||Marginal Worker|
|1. An individual is a main worker if he is engaged in any economically gainful work for a period of 183 days in a year. 2. The high percentage of main workers represents a developed economy. 3. On an average, two persons are dependent on a main worker. Main workers are mostly found in urban areas.||1. An individual who works a lesser number of days (less than 183 days) in a year is called a marginal worker. 2. The high percentage of marginal workers represents a developing economy. 3. Marginal workers are mostly found in rural areas because the agricultural activities are seasonal.|
Distinguish between Birth-rate and Growth-rate.
|1. The number of live births per thousand persons during a certain period of time is called the birth rate. 2. It is calculated for every 1000 persons for a year. 3. A high birth-rate shows an increasing population.||1. It is the difference between the birth rate and death rate per 1000 persons. 2. The growth-rate of population is expressed as percentage during a certain period of time. 3. When birth-rate is more than death-rate, it shows a positive growth rate.|
Distinguish between Arithmetic density and Physiological density of population.
|Arithmetic density||Physiological density|
|1. This is measured to express the number of people per unit area. 2. The arithmetic density of India|
12102 lakh persons 32.8 lakh km2=382 3. It explains the variation in distribution of population.
|1. It is measured to express the ratio of total population to cultivated area. 2. The physiological density of India|
12102 lakh persons 15.6 lakh km2=780 3. It shows the number of persons dependent on cultivated land.
State the place of India in the world in terms of population size and density.
Compare India’s population size with some big countries of the world.
India has a total population of 1210 million persons (in 2011). India is one of the most populous countries of the world. India ranks second in world population next to China. India has 16.7% of the world population, but it has only 2.4% of the worlds land. India’s population is more than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together. This shows that India has a large population
(a) Name the four most populous states of the country.
(b) Name four large states of India (As regards to area). Compare their population size and area.
(a) The four most populous states of India are (according to 2011 Census):
(b) Four large states of India (As regards area)
|S. No.||Name of State||Area (kms)||Rank in area||Population||Rank in Population|
(1) These four large states together account for about 1/3 of the total population of India.
(2) More than l/4th of total population of India lives in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(3) Uttar Pradesh has more people than the two largest states of India i.e., Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
(4) Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are sparsely populated but Uttar Pradesh is densely populated.
Explain the causes of concentration of dense population in the Sutlej-Ganga plains.
Sutlej-Ganga plains is the most densely populated area in India. This includes the states of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi (NCR), Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The density of population of these states is above national average density.
|State||Density of population||State ’||Density of population|
|Delhi (NCR)||11297||West Bengal||1029|
This is the largest compact belt of high density of population. West Bengal has the highest density of population in India.
(1) Favourable climate
(2) Fertile river valleys and delta favouring agriculture.
(3) 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
(4) Irrigation facilities.
(5) Rural economy.
(6) Urban and Industrial development in Delhi and Kolkata.
(7) A network of developed means of transportation.
Highlight the significance of Socio-economic factors affecting the distribution of population.
Socio-economic factors have helped to increase the economic development of an area.
(i) Technology has been the key to Development.
(ii) Technical know how has increased the supporting capacity of different areas.
(iii) Primary activities are being replaced by secondary and tertiary activities. These support a high density of population.
(iv) Industrialisation such as around Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata have high density of population.
(v) Urbanisation has increased the concentration of people.
(vi) Areas having the strategy of Green revolution such as Punjab has high density of population.
State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided.
The process of change in a society, population is called the demographic Transition. It consists of four stages in India:
- Period of Stagnant growth rate—Before 1921 (High death and birth rates)
- Period of Steady growth rate—1921 to 1951 (High birth rate low declining death rate)
- Period of rapid growth rate —1951 tol981 (Death rate declining faster than birth rate)
- Period of declining growth rate—(after 1981) (Low birth rate and low death rate)
‘The huge size of population dependent on a narrow resource base creates many problems.’ Discuss.
India has a huge population (1210 million). 16.7 percent of the world population lives in only 2.4 percent of the world land. This huge population has created many social, political and economic problems. Large size of population means heavy pressure on natural and man-made resources. Two major problems are poverty and environmental degradation. Ethnic diversity, rural character and uneven distribution are also showing the socio-economic development. Indian Agriculture cannot absorb the fast growing population.
State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided.
The Indian demographic history can be divided into the following four phases :—
1. Before 1921 Period. During this period, the increase in population was sporadic, irregular and slow. After 1921, it has increased steadily. Hence the year 1921 is called the demographic divide in the population study of India.
2. During 1921-51 Period. The population increased steadily with the development in medical facilities which reduced deaths caused by epidemics like plague, cholera and malaria. Deaths due to famines declined and sanitation and medical facilities improved. Consequently, crude death rate declined, but crude birth rate remained high. It is called mortality induced growth.
3. During 1951-81 Period. Average growth rate was about 2.2 per cent per annum during this period. The living conditions of the people improved enormously. Death rates however declined faster than the birth rates. This situation resulted in high natural increase. Thus it was fertility-induced growth.
4. After 1981 Period. The rate of growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rate declined rapidly, from 34 per thousand in 1981 to 26 per thousand in 1999. The difference between birth and death rates narrowed to 17. This declining trend is a positive indicator of the official efforts of birth control and people’s own inclination to opt for smaller families.
What is meant by the term ‘index of population concentration’ ? What are its implications ?
Index of population concentration is the proportion of India’s population living in a state of Indian union. For example, the index of concentration for Uttar Pradesh is
1995 Lakh 12102 Lakh =199512102×100=16.48%
It means 16.48% population of India lives in Uttar Pradesh Thus, it is a ratio between the population of state and total population of the country.
The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steadily increasing overtime. Substantiate the statement. (CBSE 2018)
Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points. The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steady.
The Decades 1921-1951
- It is a period of steady growth of population rate.
- There was an overall improvement in health and sanitation.
- It brought down the Mortality rate.
- The crude death rate remainded high.
The decades 1951-1981
- It is a period of population explosion in India.
- There was a rapid fall in Mortality rate.
- There was a high fertility rate of population.
- There was improvement in living conditions.
- Migration from neighbouring countries particularly Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, etc. had contributed to high growth rate in India.