Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries Question Answer Part 2
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Which is not a factor of industrial location?
- Population density
Ans. (3) Population density
(ii) The earliest iron and steel company to be established in India was:
- Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works
- Mysore Iron and Steel Works.
Ans. (2) TISCO
(iii) The first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai because:
- Mumbai is a port
- It is located near cotton growing area
- Mumbai was the financial centre
- All of the above
Ans. (4) All of the above
(iv) The nucleus of the Hugli Industrial Region is:
Ans. (1) Kolkata-Haora
(v) Which one of the following is the second largest producer of sugar?
- Uttar Pradesh
- Tamil Nadu
Ans. (2) Uttar Pradesh
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country?
Ans. India being a developing country, Iron and Steel Industry has a very important role to play. The manufacture of steel is regarded as one of the key industries. It is a prerequisite for modern industrial development.Large amounts of iron and steel is required for constructing bridges, rail tracts, railway rolling stock, ships, vehicles, various machines, power plants, airports, etc.
The basic need of Indian economy today is rapid industrialization. As important industries like Railway locomotive, Ship Building, Heavy and Light Machine, Construction, etc. depend on the availability of iron and steel, iron and steel industry accelerates industrialization and is, therefore, called the backbone of all industries.
(ii) Name the two sectors of the cotton textile industries. How are they different?
Ans. The cotton textile industry in India can be broadly divided into two sectors:
- The organised sector
- The unorganised sector
In organised sector from weaving thread to cloth is done under one unit. It makes use of powerlooms. While in unorganised sector, from threading to weaving cloth work is done by different units and it makes use of handlooms as well as powerlooms.
(iii) Why is the sugar industry a seasonal industry?
Ans. Sugar industry is a seasonal industry because of the seasonality of raw materials. Sugarcane is the raw material of sugar industry. It is not available throughout the year but only in December to January.
(iv) What is the raw material base for the petrochemical industry? Name some of the products of this industry.
Ans. Crude petroleum provides raw material base for the petrochemical industry. This group of industries is divided into four sub-groups: These are some of the products of this industry.
- synthetic fibres
- surfactant intermediate
(v) What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?
Ans. The advancement in information technology has had a profound influence on the country’s economy. The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation. The IT and IT enabled business process outsourcing (ITES- BPO) services continue to be on a robust growth path. Indian software industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy. The sector has increased its contribution to India’s GDP from 1.2% in 1998 to 7.5% in 2012.According to NASSCOM the sector aggregated revenues of US147billionin2015,withexportrevenuestandingatUS147billionin2015,withexportrevenuestandingatUS99 billion and domestic revenue at US$48 billion, growing by over 13%. India’s software industry has achieved a remarkable distinction for providing quality products. A major impact of this growth has been on employment creation, which is almost doubled every year.The IT sector has also led to massive employment generation in India. The industry continues to be a net employment generator.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) How did the Swadeshi movement give a major impetus to the cotton textiles industry?
Ans. The Swadeshi movement gave a major impetus to the cotton textile industries:
•Kawasji Dhaber started first successful cotton textile mill on the modern lines in 1854. Shahpur mill and Calico mill were established in 1858. By 1879-80, there were 58 cotton mills.
•The Swadeshi movement led by Gandhiji gave a major impetus to the textile industries as this movement increase the production and employment opportunities.
•The boycott of British goods were supplemented by the country made cotton goods and the boycott of the foreign goods accelerated the speed of Indian textile industries.
•The development of railway and roadway network are favourable for the expansion and decentralisation of cotton textile industries in India.
•Cotton mill were set up at Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangaluru, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodra. Though the country suffered a great setback due to the partition of the country.
(ii) What do you understand by liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation? How have they helped industrial development in India?
Ans. Liberalisation: Removal or reduction of different types of controls on private and foreign sector which are in force in the economy so as to make trade and industrial sector more smooth in their functioning.
Major liberalisation measures announced are:
1. Abolition of industrial licensing.
2. Free entry to foreign technology
3 . Foreign direct investment policy.
4. Access to capital market.
5. Open trade.
6. Abolition of phased manufacturing programme.
Privatisation: Privatization is the transfer of control of ownership of economic resources from the public sector to the private sector. It means a decline in the role of the public sector as there is a shift in the property rights from the state to private ownership.
Globalisation: It means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy. Under this process, goods and services along with capital, labour and resources can move freely from one nation to another.
In Indian context, globalisation implies:
1. Opening of the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economies activity in India.
2. Removing restrictions and obstacles to the entry of multinational companies in India.
3. Allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaboration in India and also encouraging them to set up joint ventures abroad.
4. Instead of a set of massive export incentives ,opting for exchange rate adjustments for promoting export.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Manufacturing Industries Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
When was TISCO at Jamshedpur established ?
Classify industries on the basis of ownership.
Public Sector, Private Sector and Cooperative Sector.
What is the total production of steel in India ?
76.7 million tonnes.
When and where was the first modern cotton textile mill setup ?
In 1854 in Mumbai.
State the number of total sugar mills in India.
What is the total production of sugar in India (2012) ?
339 million tonnes.
Name the largest centre of electronic industry in India.
Name two industrial centres of Chotta Nagpur region.
Ranchi and Bokaro.
Classify industries on the basis of raw materials.
Agro-based, Forest-based and Mineral-based industries.
On what factors does the Cotton textiles depend ?
- Raw materials
Name the five main points of Pentagon formed by major centres of cotton textiles.
Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Solapur, Nagpur, Indore, Ujjain.
Which state has the highest number of cotton textile mills ?
Tamil Nadu—439 mills.
Give one example each of Ferrous and non-Ferrous industries. (Sample Paper 1)
Ferrous—iron and steel, non-Ferrous-Copper.
Name any two sub-sections of cotton textile industry in the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
(ii) Mill Sector.
Name the two rivers that provide water to Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO). (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Khorkai and Subarnarekha.
Manufacturing Industries Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Name the industries classified on the basis of raw materials.
- Agro-based industries
- Forest-based industries
- Mineral-based industries
- Assembling industries.
Name the industries classified on the basis of entrepreneurship.
(i) Public Sector Industries
(ii) Private Sector
(iii) Co-operative Sector.
Describe five features of distribution of cotton textile industry in India.
(i) Cotton Textile is widely distributed in India.
(ii) It is concentrated in Mumbai, Ahmedabad.
(iii) It is an agro-based industry
(iv) Cloth is produced in three sectors
(v) It is the largest industry in India.
What do you mean by “manufacturing” ?
Manufacturing is the process of conversion of raw materials into useful finished products with the help of machines. It is a secondary occupation of man. Manufacturing has a major role in utilisation of resources as these transform resources into more valuable goods. For example, wood pulp and paper are manufactured from wood, yarn and cloth from cotton, steel and machine tools from iron ore.
What is heavy industry ?
The industries using minerals for manufacturing bulky products are known as heavy industries. Thus, heavy industries are mineral-based. The products are manufactured in modern mills. These form the basis of industrialisation of a country. Iron and steel, Machine tools, Engineering industries are included in this category.
In what different ways, can industries be classified ?
The industries can be classified on the following basis:
(i) On the basis of size of the industries, the industries can be classified into two categories:
- Large-scale industries.
- Small-scale industries.
(ii) On the basis of development of the industries, the industries are of two types:
- Cottage industries.
- Mill industries.
(iii) On the basis of ownership, the industries fall into three groups:
- Public sector.
- Private sector.
- Cooperative sector.
(iv) On the basis of raw materials, industries are mainly of two types :
- Agro-based industries.
- Mineral-based industries.
(v) On the basis of manufactured goods, the industries are of two types :
- Heavy industries.
- Light industries.
(vi) Similarly different types of industries are grouped as handicrafts, village industries, household industries, key industries and consumer industries.
Name the five iron and steel towns of India.
Iron and steel plants are established in the following towns which are known as steel towns of India.
- Jamshedpur (Jharkhand)
- Bokaro (Jharkhand)
- Bhilai (Chhattisgarh)
- Rourkela (Odisha)
- Durgapur (W. Bengal)
State the different sectors on ‘the basis of structure of industries. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
On the basis of ownership, the industries are grouped into three sectors:
(i) Public Sector. These are managed by the state. These are basic and heavy industries. For example, Bhilai steel plant, Nangal fertiliser factory.
(ii) Private Sector. These industries run under the private management of individuals such as Jamshedpur TISCO steel plant.
(iii) Joint or Cooperative Sector. These industries are managed by a group of persons or a co-operative society. For example, sugar industries.
What are the problems of cotton textiles?
Cotton textiles is the largest organised industry, but it has some problems.
- The production of long staple cotton is not large. India has to import long staple cotton
- The machinery is old and obsolete. Its productivity is low and cost is high
- Capital is required for modernisation of machinery particularly automatic machines
- Competition from China and Japan is hard.
Why have the textile industries moved from Mumbai towards Ahmedabad ? Explain with the help of suitable examples.
The first modern cotton textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854. Location of the Port, humid coastal climate, development of chemical industry, availability of capital and easy import of machinery were some of the advantages. Raw cotton was imported from other states. After some time, the dispersal of cotton textile industry started.
With the result, cotton mills were established at Ahmedabad, in the heart of cotton growing belt. At Ahmedabad, level land as well as capital was available. Ahmedabad has no problems of strikes, high wages. Therefore Ahmedabad became the ‘Manchester of India’ (the largest textile centre of India).
Why is iron and steel industry located only in Peninsular India ?
Iron and Steel is a heavy industry using very bulky raw materials. Therefore, its location is governed by close proximity to raw materials and good transport system. The north eastern and southern parts of Peninsular India are rich in minerals which is suitable for the location of Iron and Steel industries.
Classify industries on the basis of manufactured products.
Classification of industries is based on the nature of the manufactured products. Seven classes of industries, thus, identified are:
- Metallurgical Industries
- Mechanical Engineering Industries,
- Electrical Engineering
- Chemical and Allied Industries
- Textile Industries
- Food Industries, and
- Electricity Generation.
Electronics industries have emerged as the 8th group of industries.
Explain any three major objectives of New Industrial Policy of India, which was announced in 1991. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Mention any four major objectives of the New Industrial Policy, 1991 of India. Describe the role of globalisation in achieving these objectives. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Industrial Policy. The new industrial policy was announced in 1991. The major objectives of this policy were:
- To build on the gains already made.
- To correct the distortions or weaknesses that have crept in.
- To maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment.
- To attain international competitiveness.
Describe the steps taken during Liberalisation Policy.
New Industrial Policy of 1991 announced several liberalisation measures and private sector was destined to play an important role in industrial activities during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-1997).
- Major liberalisation measures removed entry barriers to investment
- opened trade
- provided free access to foreign technology in some sectors
- opened up foreign direct investment and
- removed barriers inhibiting access to capital markets.
Name the major industrial regions, minor industrial regions and industrial districts.
Industrial Regions and Districts
Major Industrial Regions.
- Mumbai-Pune Region
- Hugli Region
- Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu Region
- Gujarat Region
- Chottanagpur Region
- Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region
- Gurgaon- Delhi-Meerut Region, and
- Kollam-Thiruvan- thapuram Region.
Minor Industrial Regions.
- Indore- Dewas-Ujjain
- Kolhapur-South Kannad
- Northern Malabar
- Middle Malabar
- Bilaspur- Korba, and
- Brahmaputra valley.
- Jabalpur, and
List tha factors which favour the location of steel plant at Jamshedpur.
Jamshedpur is ideally situated with respect to raw materials and market for the location of iron and steel industry. The plant has the following favourable facilities:
Geographical factors for location
- Availability of iron ore from Singhbhum region.
- Coking coal from Jharia and Raniganj.
- Limestone, Manganese and Quartz are available nearby.
- Damodar, Subamrekha, Kharkai rivers provide water and sand.
- Cheap labour from densely populated state of Bihar and West Bengal.
- Facilities of cheap transport and port of Kolkata.
- Water power is available from D.V.C.
Account for the concentration of cotton textiles at Mumbai and Ahmedabad.
Mention any two factors responsible for the establishment of cotton textile mills in Mumbai. (CBSE2018)
The first cotton textile mill in India was established in 1854 in Mumbai. A large home market, manufacturing of textile machinery and abundant supply of raw cotton has favoured the growth of this industry in India. There are 1050 mills scattered over 80 towns of India. India is the world’s largest cotton textile producer.
Mumbai is the oldest centre of cotton textile industry in India. Mumbai is known as ‘Cotton Polis of India’. The following factors have led to the concentration of this industry at Mumbai:
- Early start.
- Warm and humid marine climate.
- Nearness to cotton producing areas of Maharashtra.
- Easy import of machinery, chemicals, long staple cotton from the port of Mumbai.
- Cheap skilled labour.
- Water power from Tata Hydro Electric Works.
- Large ready market.
- Facilities of trade, banking and transport.
Ahmedabad (Gujarat) is the largest producer of cotton textiles in India. It is known as the ‘Manchester of India’. Ahmedabad is situated in the heart of cotton growing areas of Gujarat. Cheap land, water power and skilled labour is available. The combination of these factors have led to the growth of cotton textiles in Ahmedabad.
Describe any five characteristics of ‘Gujarat Industrial Region’. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Explain any five factors responsible for the development of “Gujarat Industrial Region.” (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Gujarat Industrial Region.
This is the third largest industrial region of India. It is an inland industrial region and has the following favourable factors:
- It is located near the raw cotton producing area. It is close to the marketing centres of Ganga- Sutlej plains.
- Cheap skilled labour as well as cheap land is available.
- The discovery of oil in the Gulf of Cambay region has led to establishment of an industrial complex of petro-chemical industries.
- The development of new port of Kandla has provided the facilities of import-exports.
- Ahmedabad is the major centre of cotton textiles and is known as the Manchester of India’.
Why are sugar mills con¬centrated within the sugarcane producing areas in India ? Explain citing five reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2009) (Sample paper 2017)
Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the major sugarcane producing states. Most of sugar factories are located in the above mentioned states. This is due to following reasons :
- Sugarcane is a weight loosing crop. Therefore sugar mills are located near sugarcane producing areas.
- It should be used immediately after harvesting otherwise its sucrose content begins to dry.
- Sugarcane must be crushed within 24 hours of harvesting to get better recovery of sugar.
- Transportation cost is avoided if it is transported to a short distance.
- Sugar mills are located in areas where sucrose content is very high.
Explain with examples the factors that helped in the development of Hoogli Industrial region.(Delhi 2019)
Explain any five factors responsible for the development of Hoogli Industrial region. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Hoogli region is located along the Hoogli river to a distance of 100 kms. The following factors favour the development of the Hoogli region.
- Opening of coal fields of Damodar Valley.
- Opening of rich port of Kolkata along the Hoogli river.
- Location of petroleum refinery at Haldia.
- Roads and railways provides subsequante lines to the great benefit of the region.