Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 International Trade Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
Chapter 11 International Trade Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 International Trade Question Answer Part 2
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Trade between two countries is termed as
- Internal trade
- External trade
- International trade
- Local trade
Ans. (3) International trade
(ii) Which one of the following is a land-locked harbour?
Ans. (1) Vishakhapatnam
(iii) Most of India’s foreign trade is carried an through
- Land and sea
- Land and air
- Sea and air
Ans. (3) Sea and air
(iv) Which one of the following is India’s largest trading partner (2004-05)?
Ans. (4) U.S.A
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Mention the characteristics of India’s foreign trade.
Ans. Given below are characteristics of foreign trade:
- Small share in the world trade: India’s contribution in the world trade is as low as 1% of the total volume.
- Increase in trade deficit: It is mainly due to price rise of crude petroleum which forms a major component of India’s import list.
- Most of the foreign trade is carried through sea and air routes. However,a small portion is also carried through land routes to neighbouring countries like Nepal,Bhutan,Bangladesh and Pakistan.
- Large increase in volume of imports and exports: The total imports of India in 2000-01 were Rs. 230crores and exports were Rs.203 crores which have increased to 1363 crores and 845 crores in 2009-10.
- Exports of electronics, computer hardware and software had increased significantly in the recent years.
- Increased share in Gross National Income: In 1950-51, India’s foreign trade contribution into national income was 12℅ which increased to 48℅ in 2015.
(ii) Distinguish between port and harbour.
|(a) It is the point on the coast where the ship can be tied up for anchoring.||It is an area at the sea providing shelter to the ship.|
|(b) It provides facilities for loading and unloading for ship.||Ships are encouraged and given protection from waves and stones.|
|(c)Ports are generally artificially created.||It is usually a natural structure.|
|(d) It provides many facilities like warehouses to store cargo and well-built transportation systems.||It provides an adequate room for harbouring of ships.|
(iii) Explain the meaning of hinterland.
Ans. Hinterland is the surrounding area which is closely connected to the port with roads
and railways. The products of this area are sent to the port for export; and imported
material is distributed here for sale and consumption. For example, Andhra Pradesh
is the hinterland of Vishakhapatnam port.
(iv) Name important items which India imports from different countries.
Ans. India’s imports include pearls and semi precious stones, gold and silver, metallic
ferrous ores and metal scrap, non-ferrous metals, electronic goods, etc.
(v) Name the ports of India located on the east coast.
Ans. Major ports located on the east coast are: Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam,
Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Describe the composition of Export and import trade of India.
Ans. Composition of Export trade of India:
- The percentage share of the agriculture and allied products have declined. There is a decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc.
- The share of petroleum and crude products have increased due to rise in petroleum prices and increase in India’s refining capacity.
- The share of ore minerals and manufactured goods have largely remained constant over the years from 1997- 98 to 2003-04.
- Manufacturing goods are the largest exporting commodities in the year 2003-04
- The percentage share of other commodities has increased due to an increase in
fruits,marine products and sugar.
- Engineering goods are the largest commodities on the export list.
- Textile sector could not achieve much inspite of liberal measures taken by government due to competition from China and other Asian countries.
Composition of Import trade of India:
- During 1950-60’s, the major items of imports were food grains because India faced a dire need for food grain.
- After 1970’s import of food grains stopped due to Green Revolution.
- Food grains were replaced by fertilisers and petroleum.
- Machine and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals were largely import.
- Petroleum is the largest imported commodity because it is used as a fuel as well
as raw material. It indicates the tempo of rising in industrialisation and better standard if living.
- The capital goods like non-electrical machinery, transport, equipment, machines, tools, etc. have increased on the import list.
- Special steel alloy, edible oils are also imported.
- The other major items of import include pulse, precious gold and silver, metal ores, scraps, electronic goods, etc.
(ii) Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade of India.
Ans. India aims to double its share in the international trade within the next five years. It
has already started adopting suitable measures such as import liberalisation, reduction
in import duties, de-licensing and change from process to product patents. India has
trade relations with most of the countries and major trading blocks of the world.
- Largest imports and exports are from Asia and oceanic countries.
- Asia and Oceania accounted for 47.41 per cent of India’s export followed by West Europe (23.80 per cent) and America (20.42). Similarly, India’s imports were highest from Asia and Oceania (35.40 per cent) followed by West Europe (22.60 per cent) and America (8.36 per cent) in 2004-05.
- Exchange of information and knowledge has surpassed exchange of goods and commodities. Through its advanced software knowledge and excellence in the field of information technology, India has emerged as a viable contender at the international level and is earning huge amounts of foreign exchange through the same.
- Tourism too has added to India’s upgraded position in international trade. In 2004, there was a 23.5% increase in foreign tourist arrivals as against the number in 2003.
- India’s share in total world trade is continuously declining. It was 2.1% in 1950
and it is 1% in 2005. There are many factors responsible for it.
- Depreciation in value of rupee in international market.
- Slow progress in production
- Increase in domestic consumption
- Increasing competition in international market, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
International Trade Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What was the value of foreign trade of India in 2010-11 ?
₹ 28,74,600 crore.
What is the share of India in International trade ?
Which port has been developed to relieve the pressure of Chennai port ?
Name the import of India having the highest value ?
What is the value of adverse balance of trade in India in 2011 ?
₹ 540,818 crore.
What in the value of total exports of India in 2011 ?
₹ 1,142,649 crore.
To which Block, the most of exports go ?
State the number of major ports of India ?
12 major ports and 187 minor ports.
Name two new ports of India.
Nhava Sheva and Paradip.
How many domestic airports are there in India ?
11 international airports and 81 Domestic airports.
Name a new port of Tamil Nadu.
State the difference between import- export trade of India.
₹ 540,818 crore.
Name two main groups of imports of India.
Fuel and Raw-material minerals.
Question 13 A.
Name the port developed on a Satellite port to relieve the pressure of Mumbai port.
Nhava Sheva (Jawarher Lai Nehru Port).
What is the share of petroleum and petroleum products in India’s imports ?
What is the share of minerals in exports of India ?
To which eight countries of western Europe are exports from India sent ?
Germany, U.K., Belgium, Italy, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland.
Which one of the Indian Sea Ports provides facilities to the land locked neigh- bouring countries ? Name any one such country. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Kolkata provides facilities to Nepal and Bhutan.
Name the oldest artificial sea port of India. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Chennai is the oldest artificial sea port of India. It was built in 1859.
Describe in brief any three measures that have been adopted by India to increase its share in the International trade. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
India aims to double its share in the international trade within the next five years. The three measures have been adopted for it:
- Import liberalisation.
- Reduction in import duties
Name the first major sea port developed after Independence. (C.B.S.E. 2011, 2014)
What is the meaning of the (C.B.S.E. 2013)
An inland area adjoining the port which provides the resources of a port.
Name the major sea port I located on the Hoogly river. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
International Trade Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Mention four important items which India imports from other countries.
- Petroleum and Petroleum products.
- Transport Equipment.
Name four important items which India exports to other countries.
- Manufactured goods
- Readymade garments
- Cotton yarn
- Leather goods.
Name five countries of Africa with which India has trade relations.
- South Africa
- Ivory coast
Name the ports of India located on the East coast.
Kolkata, Haldia, Vishakapatnam, Paradip, Chennai, Tuticorn.
State the major problem being faced by Kolkata Seaport. (CBSE 2018)
Problem of silt accumulation in Hugli River which provides a link to the sea.
Give two reasons for the increase in difference between value of import and exports trade of India.
In 2010-1 lvalue of imports was ₹ 1,683,467 croreand the value of exports was ₹ 1,142,649 crore and difference was ₹ 540,818 crore. Gap between import and export values has widened, resulting a mounting adverse balance of trade.
There are two major reasons for this state of affairs: first is the hike in prices on the world level and second is the declining value of Indian rupee in the world market. Slow growth in production, increasing domestic consumption and keen competition in the world market are other reasons of slow growth in export.
Name the items whose share in import of India has increased.
Fertilisers, Chemicals, Machinery, Electrical and Non-electrical goods and Machinery.
Name the items whose share in imports of India has declined.
Food products, Food grain, Pulses, Milk products, Fruit, Vegetables.
Name the agricultural products of export from India.
Among agricultural produces, marine products including fish and fish products are at the top accounting for 3.1 per cent of the total value of export. Next in importance are cereals, tea, oil cake, cashew nuts, spices, fruits and vegetables, coffee and tobacco. A small quantity of raw cotton is also exported.
‘Ports are the Gateways tp I trade’. Discuss. (C.B.S.E. 2014) !
The word ‘Port’ comes from the latin word ‘Porta’ which means gateway. Port is the gateway of a country as exports and imports are handled through them. Therefore, ports are called the gateways to trade.
‘Ports function as focal points for foreign trade’. Explain.
Sea ports function as focal points for foreign trade of India. They act as collection centres of commodities from hinterland for further shipment to foreign destinations on one hand, and as receiving points of foreign consignments coming to India for distributing them in the interior part of the country.
State two main characteristics of sea ports of India. Name any two states which have two major ports.
There are 12 major ports of India. These are the gateways for imports and exports of India. These serve as collection centres for commodities to be exported and for commodities coming to India for distribution. West Bengal has two major ports of Kolkata and Haldia. Tamil Nadu has two major ports of Chennai and Tuticorin.
What is the role of sea ports in the foreign trade of India? Write any three points in this regard.
Sea ports function as focal points for foreign trade of India.
- Ports act as collection centres of commodities from hinterland for further shipment to foreign distinations.
- Ports act as receiving points of foreign consignment coming to India for distribution.
- Ports are the gateway for foreign trade as these handle exports and imports.
Why is Mumbai called a Unique port ? Explain three reasons.
- Mumbai is the biggest port of India as regards exports and imports are handled.
- It is a natural port with deep waters and safe facilities for big ships.
- It is an important industrial and commercial centre of India.
Explain the increase of share of petroleum and petroleum products in India’s import trade.
Largest positive change occurred in petroleum and petroleum product group, which gained 23.8 per cent points during 1960-61 and 2000-01. In 1960-61, these items accounted for only 6.2 per cent of total import value but it reached to 19.2 per cent in 1973-74 and 26% per cent in 2004-05.
This rapid growth was more due to the increasing prices and less due to increasing quantity. During 1974, oil producing and exporting countries raised the price of crude petroleum many times. Consequently, petroleum bill jumped very high.
The importance of manufactured goods and raw materials in India’s, import trade has reduced. Explain.
Manufactured goods also lost their significance. Among them, jute textile, cotton textile, leather goods and iron and steel products are the major sufferers. Significant decline was registered in items of crude material group. In this group, the decline in crude rubber, wood, timber, textile fibres and ferrous minerals has been most striking. This was due to increasing domestic production of these products.
Describe in brief the changing nature of export items in the international trade of India.
- India’s international trade is continuously increasing.
- The share of agricultural and allied products is decreasing.
- The import of Petroleum products is increasing.
- The exports of coffee, tea, spices is decreasing.
- The share of fresh fruits and sugar has increased in exports.
- The share of manufactured goods has increased in exports.
- The export of engineering goods has increased.
- Share of Gems-pearls and ornaments in exports has increased.
Distinguish between a major and a minor port.
|Major Port||Minor Port|
|1. A port which handles traffic of ten lakh metric tonnes every year is known as a major port. 2. These ports are handled by Port Trusts and the Central Govt. 3. These ports have all the facilities to handle international trade of the country. 4. There are ten major ports of India like as Pondicherry.||1. A port which handles traffic less than ten lakh metric tonnes every year is a minor port. 2. These port as are managed by the Stale Govt. 3. These ports handle the regional and coastal trade of a country. 4. There are 145 minor working ports such Mumbai, Chennai, etc.|
Distinguish between imports and exports.
No country is self-sufficient in all the commodities. When a country produces a commodity more than its needs, this commodity is sent to the deficit countries. It is called export. When a country produces a commodity less than its needs, it has to get the commodity from other countries. This is called import. For example, India exports tea but imports petroleum.
Compare the east and west coast harbour in respect of their site, hinterland and pattern of foreign trade.
|West Coast Ports||East Coast Ports|
|Site. The major ports situated on Western coast of India are Cochin, Mangalore. Marmagao. Mumbai and Kandla. These ports are river ports and artificial ports. There is the problem of silting due to many problems during cyclones.||The major ports situated on the Eastern coast of India are Kolknta. Paradip. Vishakhapatnam. Chennai and Tuticorin. There are natural ports situated along indented coast-line. These are deep, deposition by rivers and tides. Ships well- protected harbours. These provide face shelter to ships during monsoons.|
|2. Hinterland. These ports have densely populated rich hinter lands. Raw cotton is the main product of these areas. The western ghats are important for plant-ation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, etc. These ports export tea, coffee, iron ore and manganese.||These ports have hinterlands with rich natural resources. Minerals are the main products of these areas. Ganges plain and Damodar valley is known for sugarcane, jute, rice, coal, iron, manganese and mica. These ports export manufactured goods and minerals like iron from Vishakhapatnam and Paradip|
Define the term ‘trade.’ Describe the features of rural marketing centres and urban marketing centres. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Trade: Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere. The trade services are intended for profits. All this work takes in towns and cities and are called trading centres.
(а) Rural marketing centres: These centres cater to nearby settlements. These are quasi urban centres. Here personal and professional services are not well developed. These form local collecting and distributing centres. Most of these have mandis and also retailing centres. These supply goods demanded by rural folk.
(b) Urban marketing centres: These provide urban services. These supply specialised goods and services. These sell manufactured goods. Markets for labour, housing and semi-finished goods are held. These provides services of eduction, teachers, lawyers, consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary doctors.
International Trade Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Describe the location, characteristics and commercial importance of major ports of India.
Ports are protected inlets on the coast providing shelter to ships. An ideal port should haye indented coast line, deep water, rich hinterland and good climate. India has a coastline of 7,517 km long. There are 12 major, 22 medium and 185 minor ports.