Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities Question Answer
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities Question Answer
1. Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following statements is wrong?
(a) Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
(b) Sugar, cotton textiles, and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(c) The development of hydroelectricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for the industry.
(d) Port towns in India have attracted industries.
► (b) Sugar, cotton textiles, and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(ii) In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually?
► (a) Capitalist
(iii) Which of the following industries produces raw materials for other industries?
(a) Cottage Industries
(b) Small-scale Industries
(c) Basic Industries
(d) Footloose Industries
► (c) Basic Industries
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(iv) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Automobile industry … Los Angeles
(b) Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka
(c) Aircraft industry … Florence
(d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh
► (d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh
2. Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.
(i) High-Tech industry
(iii) Footloose industries
(i) High technology is the latest generation of manufacturing activities which is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Highly skilled specialists greatly outnumber the actual production (blue-collar) workers. Examples are robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design (CAD), and manufacturing.
(ii) Manufacturing means ‘to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ‘made by machines’. It is a process that involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets.
(iii) Footloose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material, weight loss, or otherwise. They largely depend on parts that can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantities and also employ a small labour force. It can be located in a wide variety of places.
3. Answer the following in not more than 150 words.
(i) Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.
|Primary activities involve the extraction of raw materials from the earth’s surface.
|Secondary activities involve transforming raw materials into finished goods.
|Primary activities include hunting, gathering, pastoralism, fishing, forestry, mining, and agriculture.
|Secondary activities include manufacturing various products like textiles, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, etc.
|They are almost the only source of food supply and raw materials for industries.
|Secondary activities impact health, education, transport, and trade.
|People engaged in primary activities are called red-collar workers.
|People engaged in secondary activities are called blue-collar workers.
(ii) Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities, especially in the world’s developed countries.
Modern industrial activities involve the application of power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for the production of standardised commodities.
Some major trends of modern industrial activities, especially in developed countries, are:
• Specialisation of Skills of Production: Mass production involves the production of large quantities of standardised parts by each worker performing only one task repeatedly.
• Mechanisation: Mechanisation refers to using gadgets that accomplish tasks. Automation is the advanced stage of mechanisation. Automatic factories with feedback and closed-loop computer control systems where machines are developed to ‘think’ have sprung up worldwide.
• Technological Innovation: Technological innovations through research and development strategy are an important aspect of modern manufacturing for quality control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and combating pollution.
Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with less effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.
(iii) Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are attracted to major metropolitan centres’ peripheral areas.
High-tech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to manufacturing products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Professional (white-collar) workers make up a large share of the workforce—highly qualified need better facilities such as institutions, hospitals, shopping malls, restaurants, etc.
Neatly spaced, low, modern, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories, and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. Planned business parks for high-tech start-ups have become part of regional and local development schemes.
Therefore, many countries’ high-tech industries are attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.
(iv) Africa has immense natural resources, yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.
The continent of Africa is very rich in natural resources such as crude oil, copper, coal, and manganese, but they are still backward because:
• Colonial Exploitation: African countries remained under foreign rules who exploited the natural resources for their benefit rather than developing industries and infrastructure.
• Lack of Human Resources: The continent lacks good institutions, and thus the people are not well educated and skilled. The utilisation of natural resources demands human resources.
• Civil Wars: The civil wars in the countries of Africa are frequent. There is mass-scale corruption in the governments of the African countries, which hinders the growth of countries.
• Lack of technological development: The countries of Africa are technologically very poor. The exploration and extraction of natural resources could not be possible without technology.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 NCERT Extra Questions
Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the advanced stage of mechanisation?
Automation is the advanced stage of mechanisation.
Which is vital for the industry to be closer to the raw material?
Perishability is a vital factor affecting the location of industries close to raw materials.
What are technopolies?
High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies.
Define secondary activity.
Secondary activities involve transforming the raw material (primary products) into finished goods of higher value. They are converted to manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure industries).
What is manufacturing?
Manufacturing is a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets.
What are the criteria for classifying an industry based on size?
The amount of capital invested, the number of workers employed, and the production volume determine the industry’s size.
Give examples of the cottage industry.
Basket weaving, matchsticks making, pottery, figurines, furniture, containers, leather, pottery, jewellery, artefacts from bamboo, wood, etc., are examples of cottage industries.
Give examples of large-scale industries.
Iron steel, shipbuilding, and automobiles are some examples of large-scale industry.
What is agri-business?
Agri-business is commercial farming on an industrial scale, often financed by businesses whose main interests lie outside agriculture. For
For example, large corporations in the tea plantation business.
Give an example of a technopoly.
The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies.
Which area is called ‘rust bowl’ and why?
Pittsburgh is called the ‘rust bowl’ because there were many iron and steel plants earlier, but now they have shifted to other places.
What is the importance of the Ruhr region of Germany?
It has been a major industrial region of Europe for a long time. With time the demand for coal has declined as petrol, diesel, CNG, and solar energy have replaced coal, and therefore coal industry is shrinking as iron and steel form the basis of industrial growth. The Ruhr region is responsible for 80% of Germany’s steel production.
What are mini steel plants?
These are less expensive to build and operate and can be located near markets because of the abundance of scrap metal, which is the main input. Traditionally, most of the steel was produced at large integrated plants, but mini-mills are limited to just a one-step process of steel making and are gaining ground.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Short Answer Type Questions
What are footloose industries?
Footloose industries can be located in a wide variety of places. They are not dependent on any specific raw material, weight loss or otherwise. They largely depend on parts which can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantities and also employ a small labour force. These are generally not polluting industries. The important factor in their location is accessibility by road network.
Discuss three sub-sectors of the cotton textile industry.
The cotton textile industry has three sub¬sectors, i.e. handloom, power loom and mill sectors.
- The handloom sector is labour intensive and employs semi-skilled workers. It requires a small capital investment. This sector involves spinning, weaving and finishing the fabrics.
- The power loom sector introduces machines and becomes less labour intensive, and the volume of production increases.
- The cotton textile mill sector is highly capital intensive and produces fine clothes in bulk.
What is an industry? Classify industry based on output.
An industry is a geographically located manufacturing unit maintaining books of accounts and records under a management system. As the term industry is comprehensive, it is synonymous with ‘manufacturing’. When using terms like ‘steel industry’ and ‘chemical industry’, one thinks of factories and processes. Based on the output, there are two types of industries:
- Basic industries: The industry whose products are used to make other goods by using them as raw materials are basic industries. E.g. the Iron and steel industry for making machinery for textile industries to make clothes.
- Consumer goods industries: The consumer goods industries produce goods consumed directly by consumers. For example, industries producing bread and biscuits, tea, soaps and toiletries, paper for writing, televisions, etc., are consumer goods or non-basic industries.
Classify industry based on ownership.
Based on ownership, industries are classified as:
- Public Sector Industries are owned and managed by the government. In India, there are several Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). Socialist countries have many state-owned industries. Mixed economies have both Public and Private sector enterprises.
- Individual investors own Private Sector Industries. Private organisations manage these. In capitalist countries, industries are generally owned privately.
- Joint-stock companies manage Joint Sector Industries, or sometimes the private and public sectors establish and manage the industries.
What are the characteristics of a traditional large-scale industrial region?
Traditional large-scale industrial regions are based on heavy industry, often located near coal fields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacture or textile production. These industries are now known as smokestack industries. Traditional industrial regions can be recognised by:
- A high proportion of employment in the manufacturing industry. High-density housing, often of inferior type, and poor services. Unattractive environment, for example, pollution, waste heaps, etc.
- Problems of unemployment, emigration and derelict land areas caused by the closure of factories because of a worldwide fall in demand.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities, especially in the world’s developed countries.
Traditional large-scale industries were based on heavy industry, often located near coal fields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacture or textile production. These industries are now known as smokestack industries. With modernisation, there have been changes in the industrial sector which have led to the decay of some areas, and there are industrial waste and pollution problems. The future prosperity of these areas has shifted from their traditional activities to high technology, or simply high-tech, the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to manufacturing products of an advanced scientific and engineering character.
Robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing, electronic controls of smelting and refining processes, and the constant development of new chemical and pharmaceutical products are notable examples of high-tech industries. Neatly spaced, low, modem, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies. The traditional industrial regions have shifted their focus from traditional large-scale industries to assembly plants (footloose industries), new chemical plants, universities, out-of-town shopping centres etc.
Give a brief account of the following:
(a) Iron and Steel industry
(b) Cotton Textile Industry
(a) The iron and steel industry:
It forms the base of all other industries and, therefore, is called a basic industry. It is basic because it provides the raw material for other industries, such as machine tools used for further production. It may also be called a heavy industry because it uses large quantities of bulky raw materials and its products are also heavy. Iron is extracted from iron ore by smelting in a blast furnace with carbon (coke) and limestone. The molten iron is cooled and moulded to form pig iron which is used for converting into steel by adding strengthening materials like manganese. The large integrated steel industry is traditionally located close to the sources of raw materials – iron ore, coal, manganese and limestone – or at places where these could be easily brought, e.g. near ports. But in mini steel mills, access to markets is more important than inputs.
Distribution: This industry is one of the most complex and capital-intensive industries and is concentrated in the advanced countries of North America, Europe and Asia. In the U.S.A, most of the production comes from the north.
Appalachian region (Pittsburgh), Great Lake region. The industry has also moved towards the southern state of Alabama. The Pittsburg area is now losing ground. It has now become the “dust bowl” of the U.S.A. In Europe, the U.K., Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Russia are the leading producers. In Asia, the important centres include Nagasaki and Tokyo-Yokohama in Japan; Shanghai, Tientsin and Wuhan in China; and Jamshedpur, Kulti-Bumper, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bhilai, Bokaro, Salem, Visakhapatnam and Bhadravati in India centres.
(b) Cotton textile industry:
The cotton textile industry has three sub¬sectors, i.e. handloom, power loom and mill sectors. The handloom sector is labour¬intensive and employs semi-skilled workers. It requires a small capital investment. This sector involves spinning, weaving and finishing the fabrics. The power loom sector introduces machines and becomes less labour intensive, and the volume of production increases. The cotton textile mill sector is highly capital intensive and produces fine clothes in bulk. Cotton textile manufacturing requires good quality cotton as raw material. India, China, the U.S.A, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and Egypt produce more than half of the world’s raw cotton. The U.K, NW European countries and Japan also produce cotton textile made from imported yam. Europe alone accounts for nearly half of the world’s cotton imports.
The industry has to face stiff competition with synthetic fibres. Hence it has now shown a declining trend in many countries; with scientific advancement and technological improvements, the structure of industries changes. For example, Germany recorded constant growth in the cotton textile industry from the Second World War till the seventies, but it has declined. It has shifted to less developed countries where labour costs are low.
Define manufacturing. List the characteristics of modern large-scale manufacturing.
Manufacturing means “to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ‘made by machines’. It essentially involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets. Modern large-scale manufacturing has the following characteristics: Specialization of Skills/Methods of Production: Under the ‘craft’ method, factories produce only a few made-to-order pieces. So the costs are high. On the other hand, mass production involves the production of large quantities of standardised parts by each worker performing only one task repeatedly.
Mechanisation: Mechanization refers to using gadgets which accomplish tasks. Automation (without the aid of human thinking during the manufacturing process) is the advanced stage of mechanisation. Technological Innovation: Technological innovations through research and development strategy are an important aspect of modern manufacturing for quality control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and combating pollution. Organisational Structure and Stratification: Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
- a complex machine technology
- extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with less effort, and low costs
- vast capital
- large organisations
- executive bureaucracy.
Describe the factors that affect the location of industries.
Major concentrations of modern manufacturing have flourished in a few places. These cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land area. These nations have become the centres of economic and political power. Industries maximise profits by reducing costs. Therefore, industries should be located at points where the production costs are minimal. Some of the factors influencing industrial locations are under Access to Market: A market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries. ‘Market’ means people who have a demand for these goods and have the purchasing power (ability to purchase) to purchase from the sellers at a place. Remote areas inhabited by a few people offer small markets. The developed regions of Europe, North America, Japan and Australia provide large global markets as the purchasing power of the people is very high. The densely populated regions of South and Southeast Asia also provide large markets.
Access to Raw Material: Raw material used by industries should be cheap and easy to transport. Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw materials, such as steel, sugar, and cement. Perishability is a vital factor for the industry to be closer to the source of the raw material. Agro-processing and dairy products are processed close to farm produce or milk supply sources, respectively. Access to Labour Supply: Labour supply is an important factor in the location of industries. Some types of manufacturing still require skilled labour. Increasing mechanisation, automation and flexibility of industrial processes have reduced industry dependence upon labour. Access to Sources of Energy: Industries which use more power are located close to the source of the energy supply, such as the aluminium industry. Coal was the main energy source; today, hydroelectricity and petroleum are also important sources of energy for many industries.
Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities: Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry raw materials to the factory and move finished goods to the market are essential for the development of industries. The transport cost plays an important role in the location of industrial units. Communication is also an important need for industries to exchange and manage information. Government Policy: Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’ economic development and set up industries in particular areas.
Access to Agglomeration Economies/ Links between Industries: Many industries benefit from nearness to a leader-industry and other industries. These benefits are termed agglomeration economies. These factors operate together to determine industrial location.
Classify industry based on inputs. Ans. Based on the raw materials used, the industries are classified as:
(c) chemical based
(d) forest-based and
(a) Agro-based Industries:
Agro-processing involves processing raw materials from the field and the farm into finished products for rural and urban markets. Major agro-processing industries are food processing, sugar, pickles, fruit juices, beverages (tea, coffee and cocoa), spices and oils, fats and textiles (cotton, jute, silk), rubber, etc. Food and Agro-processing include canning, producing cream, fruit processing and confectionery. While some preserving techniques, such as drying, fermenting and pickling, have been known since ancient times, these had limited applications to cater to the pre-industrial Revolution demands.
(b) Mineral-based Industries:
These industries use minerals as raw materials. Some industries use ferrous metallic minerals, which contain ferrous (iron), such as iron and steel industries, but some use non-ferrous metallic minerals, such as aluminium, copper and jewellery industries. Many industries use non-metallic minerals, such as cement and pottery industries.
(c) Chemical-based Industries:
Such industries use natural chemical minerals, e.g. mineral-oil (petroleum) is used in the petrochemical industry. Salts, sulphur and potash industries also use natural minerals. Chemical industries are also based on raw materials obtained from wood and coal. Synthetic fibre, plastic, etc., are other examples of chemical-based industries.
(d) Forest-based raw Materials using Industries:
The forests provide many major and minor products used as raw materials. Timber for the furniture industry, wood, bamboo and grass for the paper industry, and lac for lac industries come from forests.
(e) Animal-based Industries:
Leather for the leather industry and wool for woollen textiles are obtained from animals. Besides, ivory is also obtained from elephants’ tusks.
Give the characteristics of high-tech industries.
High technology, or simply high-tech, is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to manufacturing products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Professional (white-collar) workers comprise a large share of the workforce. These highly skilled specialists greatly outnumber the actual production (blue-collar) workers.
Robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing, electronic controls of smelting and refining processes, and the constant development of new chemical and pharmaceutical products are notable examples of high-tech industries. Neatly spaced, low, modern, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. Planned business parks for high-tech start-ups have become part of regional and local development schemes.
High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies. The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India.
Distinguish between cottage industries and small-scale industries.
|Small Scale Industries
|(i) It is the smallest manufacturing unit. Finished products may be for consumption in the same household, sale in local (village) markets, or barter.
|(i) Small-scale manufacturing is distinguished from household industries by its production techniques and place of manufacture (a workshop outside the home/cottage of the producer).
|(ii) The artisans use local raw materials and simple tools to produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members or part-time labour.
|(ii) This type of manufacturing uses local raw material, simple power-driven machines and semi-skilled labour.
|(iii) Some common everyday products produced in this manufacturing sector include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes, and figurines from wood lot and forest, shoes, thongs and other articles from leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones. Goldsmiths make jewellery of gold, silver and bronze. Some artefacts and crafts are made from bamboo; wood obtained locally from the forests.
|(iii) It provides employment and raises local purchasing power. Therefore, countries like India, China, Indonesia and Brazil, etc., have developed labour¬intensive small-scale manufacturing to employ their population.
Distinguish between small-scale & large scale manufacturing industry.
|Small Scale Industries
|Large Scale Industries
|(i) Its manufacturing place (workshop) is outside the home/cottage of the producer.
|(i) Large-scale industry is a market-oriented industry involving large-scale production and technologically advanced methods of production of goods in a large factory set up.
|(ii) It uses local raw material, simple power-driven machines and skilled labour.
|(ii) It involves a large market, various raw materials, enormous energy, specialised workers, advanced technology, assembly-
|(iii) Countries like India, China, Indonesia and Brazil have developed labour-intensive small-scale manufacturing to employ their population.
|(iii) This kind of manufacturing developed in the last 200 years in the United Kingdom, the north-eastern U.S.A. and Europe.
Differentiate between Basic Industry and Consumer Goods industry
|Consumer Goods Industry
|(i) Industries whose products produce other goods as raw materials are called basic industries. (ii) Iron and steel industry produces steel used by other industries as a raw material to produce machines.
|(i) Industries which produce goods for direct consumption are known as consumer goods industries. (ii) Consumers use tea, bread, soap and television.
Differentiate between Private Sector Industry and Public Sector Industry
|Consumer Goods Industry
|(i) Industries owned and managed by an individual or a corporate body belong to the private sector. Individuals invest their capital, and they manage these industries themselves. (ii) Reliance Industries Limited
|(i) When the ownership and management of industry are in the hand of the state, it is called the public sector industry. (ii) Bharat Heavy Electronics Limited
Differentiate between white-collar workers and blue-collar workers.
|White Collar Worker
|Blue Collar Worker
|(i) Those workers who are highly qualified and skilled and do mental work are called white-collar workers. (ii) These workers enjoy a high standard of living and better social status.
|(i) Those workers who are not qualified and skilled and do physical work are called blue-collar workers. (ii) They get relatively lesser wages.