Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources Question Answer Part 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources Part B Geography- India People and Economy NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography
CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources Question Answer Part 2
1. Choose the right answer of the following from the given options.
(i) In which one of the following states are the major oil fields located?
- Tamil Nadu
Ans. (1) Assam
(ii) At which one of the following places was the first atomic power station started?
- Rana pratap Sagar
Ans. (4) tarapur
(iii) Which one of the following minerals is known as brown diamond?
Ans. (2) Lignite
(iv) Which one of the following is non-renewable sources of energy?
- Wind power
Ans. (3) Thermal
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Give an account of the distribution of mica in India.
Ans. Mica in India is produced in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan followed by Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
- In Jharkhand, high quality mica is obtained in a kelt extending over a distance of about 150 km, in length and about 22 km, in width in lower Hazaribagh plateau.
- In Andhra Pradesh, Nellore district produces the mica of best quality.
- In Rajasthan, mica belt extends for about 320 kms from Jaipur to Bhilwara and around Udaipur.
- Mica deposits are also found in Mysore and Hasan districts of Karanataka, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, Alleppey in Kerala, Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Purulia and Bankura in West Bengal.
(ii) What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.
Ans.Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka) and Kakarapara (Gujarat).
(iii) Name non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution.
Ans. Bauxite, copper,lead and zinc, gold and silver are non-ferrous metals. India is poorly endowed with non-ferrous metallic minerals except bauxite.
Bauxite is the ore which is used in manufacturing of aluminium. Bauxite is found mainly in tertiary deposits.Odisha happens to be the largest producer of Bauxite. Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers. The other two areas which have been increasing their production are Bolangir and Koraput. The patlands of Jharkhand in Lohardaga have rich deposits.Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are other major producers.
Bhavanagar, Jamnagar in Gujarat have the major deposits. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat in M.P. have important deposits of bauxite. Kolaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important producers. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.
The Copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat
district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan.Minor producers of Copper are Agnigundalai inGuntur District (Andhra Pradesh), Chitradurga and Hasan districts (Karnataka) and South Arcot district(Tamil Nadu).
(iv) What are non-conventional sources of energy?
Ans. Energy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste as well as human excreta is known as non-conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do not cause environmental pollution. Solar energy, wind energy, tidal and wave energy, geothermal energy, biomass are some of the important non conventional sources of energy.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Write a detailed note on the petroleum resources of India.
Ans. The word ‘petroleum’ has been derived from two Latin words Petra (meaning rock) and Oleum (meaning oil). Thus petroleum is oil obtained from rocks; particularly sedimentary rocks of the earth. Therefore, it is also called mineral oil.
Oil extracted from the oil wells is in its crude form and contains many impurities. It is refined in oil refineries before use. After refining, various products such as kerosene, diesel, petrol, lubricants, bitumen, etc. are obtained. Although India’s first oil refinery started working way back in 1901 at Digboi in Assam, it remained the only refinery in the whole of India for more than half a century.It was only in 1954 that another refinery at Tarapur (Mumbai) joined the lone refinery of Digboi. Since then oil refining in India has progressed at a rapid pace.
Oilfields of India are of two types, namely On-shore Oil-fields and Off-shore Oil-fields. The list of major Oil Fields in India are given below:
1. On-shore Oil‑fields in North-Eastern India:
In Assam there are Digboi (oldest field, 1866), Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, Galeki, Hugrijan, Angui and Lakwa fields.
There are oil-fields at Nigreu Oil-fields near Kharasang in Tirap district, in Arunachal Pradesh. In Nagaland oilfields are at Borholla on the border between Nagaland and Assam.
2. On-shore Oil-fields in Western India:
In Gujarat important fields are:
- Anklesh war (largest field in the Khambhat Basin),
- Navagam ,
- Ahmedabad and
- Sanand fields.
3. On-shore Oil-fields in Southern India:
Godavari Basin, Kaveri Basin has become now a prospective oil-field of India. Oilfields are at Narimanam, Kovilappal, etc.
Off-shore Oil-fields is in the Mumbai High region, out in the Arabian Sea, 152 km north-west of Mumbai City. The name of the rig installed here is Sagar Samrat.
As on 31 March 2016, India had estimated crude oil reserves of 621.10 million tonnes, declining by 2.28% from the previous year. The largest reserves are found in the Western Offshore (39.79%), and Assam (25.89%).
The Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserve (ISPR) is an emergency fuel store of total 5 MMT (million metric tons) or 36.92 Mmbbl of strategic crude oil enough to provide 10 days of consumption which are maintained by the Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Limited.
Strategic crude oil storages are at 3 underground locations in Mangalore,Vishakhapatnam and Padur near Udupi are located on the east and west coasts of India are readily accessible to the refineries.
India produced 36.95 MTs of crude petroleum in 2015-16. Production of crude petroleum in India had a CAGR of 0.84% between 2006-07 and 2015-16.
As on 31 March 2016, there were 23 crude oil refineries in India, of which 18 were state-owned, 3 were privately owned and 2 were joint ventures. The total oil refining capacity in India stood at 230 MMT, rising from 215 MT the previous year. Refineries in India processed 232.865 MMT of oil in 2015-16 achieving a capacity utilization of 101.2%. With a total refining capacity of 69.2 MMTY, the state-owned Indian Oil Corporation was the largest refiner in the country. Indian Oil’s refineries processed 58.007 MMT of crude oil in 2015-16.
(ii) Write an essay on hydel power in India.
Ans. Hydro power is considered as one of the most economic and non polluting sources of energy. Power generated from water is termed as Hydroelectricity. Hydro electricity means electricity generated by hydropower or from the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. One of the most common forms of power generation since this form of energy neither produces any direct waste matter nor is subjected to exhaustion.
Hydel power is a renewable energy resource because it uses the Earth’s water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity.
India is the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world. As of 30 April 2017, India’s installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity was 44,594 MW or 13.5% of its total utility power generation capacity. Additional smaller hydroelectric power units with a total capacity of 4,380 MW (1.3% of its total utility power generation capacity) have been installed.India’s hydroelectric power potential is estimated at 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In the fiscal year 2016-17, the total hydroelectric power generated in India was 122.31 TWh (excluding small hydro) with an average capacity power of 33%.
The hydroelectric power plants at Darjeeling and Shivanasamundram were established in 1898 and 1902, respectively. They were among the first in Asia and India has been a dominant player in global hydroelectric power development.India also imports surplus hydroelectric power from Bhutan.
India’s economically exploitable and viable hydroelectric potential is estimated to be 148,701 MW.An additional 6,780 MW from smaller hydro schemes (with capacities of less than 25 MW) is estimated as exploitable. 56 sites for pumped storage schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of 94,000 MW have also been identified.
The public sector accounts for 92.5% of India’s hydroelectric power production. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation(NHPC), Northeast Electric Power Company(NEEPCO), Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVNL), THDC, and NTPC- hydro are some of the public sector companies producing hydroelectric power in India. The private sector is also expected to grow with the development of hydroelectric energy in the Himalayan mountain ranges and in the northeast of India.Indian companies have also constructed hydropower projects in Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan and other countries.
Bhakta Bea’s Management Board(BBMB), a state-owned enterprise in north India, has an installed capacity of 2.9 GW.The generation cost after four decades of operation is about 27 paise (0.42¢ US) per kWh. BBMB is a major source of peaking power and black start capability to the northern grid in India and it’s large reservoirs provide wide operational flexibility.
India has transformed from an electricity deficit state to an electricity surplus state. Peak load shortages can be met making use of pumped storage schemes which store surplus power to meet peak load demands. The pumped storage schemes also contribute secondary, seasonal power at no additional cost when rivers are flooded with excess water. India has already established nearly 4,800 MW pumped storage capacity with the installation of hydropower plants.
Many of the existing hydro power stations on the west-flowing rivers located in the Western Ghats of Kerela and Karnataka are to be expanded to include pumped storage units in an effort to solve the water deficit of east-flowing rivers like the Kaveri, the Krishna, etc.
Some of the large hydro-electric power projects are:
1. Damodar Valley Project — Bihar & W. Bengal
2. Bhakra-Nangal Project — Punjab.
3. Hirakud Project — .Orissa
4. Chambal Project — M.P.
5. Ukai Project — Gujarat
6. Ramganga Project — U.P.
7. Parambikulam — Aliyar — Tamil Nadu.
8. Tunga-Bhadra Project — Karnataka — A.P.
9. NagarjunSagar Project — Tamil Nadu
10. Mettur Project — Tamil Nadu
11. Idukki Project — Kerala
12. Bhibpuri and Khopli Project — Maharashtra.
These hydro-electric projects have helped in developing industrial and agricultural production. Electricity has been supplied for domestic uses almost throughout the country. It is being used for running trains.
In short, the development of hydro- electricity has revolutionised the economic landscape of the country.
NCERT Solutions Class 12th Geography Question Answer Free Download
CBSE Class 12th Geography Question Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Books Solutions for Class 12 Geography Question and Answer: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Chapter 1 Human Geography (Nature and Scope)
- Chapter 2 The World Population (Distribution, Density, and Growth)
- Chapter 3 Population Composition
- Chapter 4 Human Development
- Chapter 5 Primary Activities
- Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
- Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Chapter 8 Transport and Communication
- Chapter 9 International Trade
- Chapter 10 Human Settlements
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Answer: India People and Economy
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy
- Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
- Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences
- Chapter 3 Human Development
- Chapter 4 Human Settlements
- Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture
- Chapter 6 Water Resources
- Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources
- Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries
- Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
- Chapter 10 Transport And Communication
- Chapter 11 International Trade
- Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
Mineral and Energy Resources Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What was the total value of minerals mined in 2012 ?
₹ 2.3 crore
What are the total Coal reserves in India in 2012 ?
285.38 billion tonnes.
Name two groups of coal Helds.
Gondwana and Tertiary.
Where is Mumbai High located ?
176 km away from Mumbai in Arabian Sea.
What is the total production of Petroleum in India ?
320 lakh tonnes.
Which is the largest Oil refinery in India ?
What is the total production of Iron ore in India in 2013-13 ?
136 million tonnes.
Where was the first Atomic station set up in India ?
In 1969 at Tarapur near Mumbai.
Name two sources of non-conventional energy.
Biomass and Solar energy.
Name three mineral belts of India.
N.E. plateau, S.W. plateau and N.W. Region.
Which state is the largest producer of Coal in India ?
Which is the largest oil producing area in India ?
Where was first Electric power house set up ?
In 1897 in Darjeeling.
Name any two ferrous (C.B.S.E. 2011)
What are sustainable energy resources ?
Renewable energy resources like Solar energy, Wind, Hydro, geothermal and Bio mass.
Give two advantages of wind energy. Mention four states of India having favourable conditions for the development of wind-energy. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
(i) Wind energy is pollution free.
(ii) It is an inexhaustible source of energy. Favourable conditions for wind energy are found in states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Explain any three social and economic values which encourage us to use more and more non-conventional sources of energy. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
(i) Planned and judicious use of natural resources.
(ii) Conservation of environment.
(iii) Harmony with nature.
(iv) Sustainable development.
When and where the first successful attempt to tap the underground heat was made?
In 1890 in city of Boise, Idaho (USA)
Mineral and Energy Resources Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
“The non conventional sources of energy will provide more sustained, eco-friendly and cheaper energy, if the initial cost is taken care of.” Examine the statement. (CBSE 2018)
Today non conventional sources of energy include wind, tides, geo-thermal heat, biogas, farm and animal waste including human excreta. All these sources are renewable and inexhaustible. They are inexpensive in nature. These are pollution free. These help in decentralisation of industries. Energy can be developed in rural area. These can be developed and maintained at low costs.
Due to acute shortage of conventional sources of energy, it has become necessary to explore the possibilities of using non-conventional sources of energy. These resources are more equitably distributed and environmental-friendly. These will provide more sustainable, eco-friendly and cheaper energies.
What is meant by ‘Mumbai High’ and ‘Sagar Samrat’ ?
Mumbai High. Rich oil fields have been discovered in offshore region in gulf of Cambay, along the coast of Mumbai. Oil struck below the sea beds at a distance of 115 kms. from the shore on 19th February, 1974. The drilling was done with the help of Sagar Samrat (A drilling platform). This has become the richest oil field in India and is known as ‘Mumbai High’. It has been connected with the coast by a sub-marine pipeline.
Name the different Nuclear power stations in India.
Uranium and Thorium are used as raw materials for generating atomic power. These minerals are found in Bihar, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1947 in India. There are four atomic power stations in India.
- Tarapur (Maharashtra)
- Rana Pratap Sagar (Kota)
- Kalpakkam (Chennai)
- Narora (Uttar Pradesh).
Two atomic stations at Kakarpara (Gujarat) and Kaiga (Karnataka) are at planning stage.
What is bio-energy ? State four advantages of bio-energy. (C.B.S.E. 2013
Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues, along with municipal, industrial and other works,
(i) It is a potential source of energy conversion.
(ii) It can be converted into electrial energy, heat energy or gas for cooking.
(iii) It can process waste to produce energy.
(iv) It reduces environmental pollution.
Give two advantages of copper. Mention four main copper mining areas of India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Copper is an indispensable metal in the electrical industry for making wires, electrical motors, transformers and generators. It is also mixed with gold to provide strength to jewellery. Copper deposits are found in:
- Singhbhum district in Jharkhand
- Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh
- Jhunjhuna in Rajasthan
- Alwar in Rajasthan
Describe the regions producing Natural gas in India. Describe H.B.J. pipeline.
Natural gas has emerged as a dynamic source of energy. The total production of Natural gas is 40.674 billion cubic metres in India (2012). Cambay basin, Kaveri coast, Jaisalmer and Mumbai High are the main producers of Natural gas. H.B.J. gas pipeline has been constructed for transporting gas running between Hazira, Bijapur and Jagdishpur.
It is 1700 km. long and runs through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. This pipeline will supply gas to Bijapur, Sawai Madhopur, Jagdishpur, Shahjahanpur, Amla, Babrala fertiliser plants.
In India, Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL), Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPC) are exploring and managing gas resources.
Describe the ‘Iron ore belt of India’.
The total reserves of iron ore in the country were about 28.52 billion tonnes in the year 2012. About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. (1) In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar. The important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj), Kiruburu (Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh).
(2) Similar hill ranges such as Jharkhand have some of the oldest iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them. Most of the important mines such as Noamandi and Gua are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts.
(3) This belt further extends to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila. Dalli, and Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of iron ore in the country.
(4) In Karnataka, iron ore deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of Bellary district, Baba Budan hills and Kudremukh in Chikmangalur district and parts of Shimoga, Chitradurg and Tumkur districts.
(5) The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.
(6) Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh.
(7) Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other iron mining regions.
(8) Goa has also emerged as an important producer of iron ore.
Distinguish between Ferrous and Non- ferrous minerals.
|Ferrous Minerals||Non-Ferrous Minerals|
|1. The metallic minerals which contain iron content are called ferrous minerals (Fe). 2. Iron, Manganese. Chromite, Cobalt, etc., are ferrous minerals. 3. These are used in Iron and Steel industry. Some minerals are used as alloys in making different types of steel.||1. The minerals which do not contain iron (ferrous) content are called non- ferrous minerals. 2. Copper. Lead, Zinc. Aluminium are non- ferrous minerals. 3. Each mineral has its particular utility. Some minerals are valuable according to their uses.|
Distinguish between Metallic and Non- metallic minerals
Classify minerals on the basis of chemical and physical properties. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
|Metallic Minerals||Non-Metallic Minerals|
|1. Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products. 2. Iron, Copper, Bauxite, Tin, Manganese are some examples. 3. These are generally associated with Sedimentary and Igneous rocks. 4. These can be reused after melting.||1. Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting. 2. Coal, Salt, Clay. Marble are some examples. 3. These are generally associated with rocks. 4. These cannot be used after melting.|
Distinguish between Rock and Mineral ore.
|1. A rock is a natural solid material forming the earth crust. 2. A rock is an aggregate of minerals such as granite, marble, etc. 3. A rock does not have a definite chemical composition. 4. Rocks are mainly of three types—Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic.||1.A mineral is, a natural inorganic compound found in the rocks. 2. Some rocks contain only one mineral and are called mineral ores such as iron ore. 3. It has definite chemical composition. 4. There are about 2000 types of minerals.|
Mineral and Energy Resources Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Describe the production and distribution of Iron ore in India.
Iron Ore. Iron is the most useful of all metals. It has strength, hardness and magnetic properties. Iron has become the basis of modern industrialisations. It has revolutionised modern means of land, air, and water transportation. India is rich both in quality and quantity of iron ore deposits. India ranks seventh in the world with 5% production of iron ore. The iron ore deposits mainly consist of hematite and magnetite deposits with an iron content of 60 to 70%.
Production and reserves: India has iron ore reserves (about 7% of the world) about 28.82 million tonnes. Most of these deposits are in Jharkhand and Odisha state. These deposits are the world’s richest and largest deposits.
Distribution of Iron Deposits: Jharkhand and Odisha produce about 75% of total production of iron ore in India. This is called ‘iron ore belt of India’. Major steel plants of India are located in this region.
- Jharkhand: Noamandi and Gua mines in Singhbhum district and Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand state.
- Odisha: Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Bonai districts.
- Chhattisgarh: Dhali-Rajhara hills (Durg) and Bailadila (Bastar) in Chhattisgarh state.
- Tamil Nadu: Salem and Madurai.
- Other areas: Baba Budan Hills and Kudremukh in Karnataka, Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh, Lohara, Ratnagiri and Pipalgaon in Maharashtra,
Salem and Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu and Goa.India exports iron ore to Japan and some other countries. The total value of iron ore exports in 2011¬12 was ₹ 33911.7 crores. The port of Mormugao, Vishakhapatnam, Paradip and Mangalore handle these exports.