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MCQ Question for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution with Answers
Heredity And Evolution Class 10 MCQ Question 1. Process of selecting individuals with desired characters by man is called
(c) Artificial selection
(d) Natural selection
2. Which one of the following pairs are homologous organs?
(a) Forelimbs of a bird and wings of a bat.
(b) Wings of a bird and wings of a butterfly.
(c) Pectoral fins of a fish and forelimbs of a horse.
(d) Wings of a bat and wings of a cockroach.
3. The theory of evolution of species by natural selection was given by
4. A cross between a tall pea-plant (TT) and a short pea-plant (tt) resulted in progenies that were all tall plants because
(a) tallness is the recessive trait.
(b) shortness is the dominant trait.
(c) height of pea-plant is not governed by gene T or t.
(d) tallness is the dominant trait.
5. The number of pairs of sex chromosomes in the zygote of a human being is
6. A zygote which has an X-chromosome inherited from the father will develop into a
(c) either boy or girl
(d) X-chromosome does not influence the sex of a child.
7. A man with blood group A marries a woman having blood group O. What will be the blood group of the child?
(a) O only
(b) A only
(d) Equal chance of acquiring blood group A or blood group O.
8. What does the progeny of a tall plant with round seeds and a short plant with wrinkled seeds look like?
(a) All are tall with round seeds.
(b) All are short with round seeds.
(c) All are tall with wrinkled seeds.
(d) All are short with wrinkled seeds.
9. If a round, green seeded pea-plant (RRyy) is crossed with a wrinkled yellow seeded pea- plant (rrYY), the seeds produced in F1 generation are
(a) round and green (b) round and yellow
(c) wrinkled and green
(d) wrinkled and yellow
10. The human species has genetic roots in
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 11. Which of the following is the ancestor of ‘Broccoli’?
(c) Wild cabbage
12. The process of evolution of a species whereby characteristics which help individual organisms to survive and reproduce are passed on to their offspring and those characteristics which do not help are not passed on is called Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
(a) Artificial selection
(d) Natural selection
13. Identify the two organisms which are now extinct and are studied from their fossils.
(a) white tiger and sparrow
(b) dinosaur and fish (Knightia)
(c) ammonite and white tiger
(d) trilobite and white tiger
14. Which of the following decides the sex of the child?
(a) male gamete, i.e., sperm
(b) female gamete, i.e., ovum
(c) both sperm and ovum
15. Pure-bred pea plant A is crossed with pure¬bred pea plant B. It is found that the plants which look like A do not appear in Fj gene¬ration but re-emerge in F2 generation. Which of the plants A and B are tall and dwarf?
(a) A are tall and B are dwarf.
(b) A are tall and B are also tall.
(c) A are dwarf and B are also dwarf
(d) A are dwarf and B are tall
MCQ Questions On Heredity And Evolution Class 10 Question 16. In humans if gene B gives brown eyes and gene b gives blue eyes, what will be the colour of eyes of the persons having combinations
(i) Bb and (ii) BB?
(a) (i) Blue and (ii) Brown
(b) (i) Brown and (ii) Blue
(c) (i) Brown and (ii) Brown
(d) (i) Blue and (ii) Blue
17. A cross between two individuals results in a ratio of 9 : 3 : 3 :1 for four possible phenotypes of progeny. This is an example of a
(a) Monohybrid cross
(b) Dihybrid cross
(c) Test cross
(d) F1 generation
18. Which of the following characters can be acquired but not inherited?
(a) Colour of skin
(b) Size of body
(c) Colour of eyes
(d) Texture of hair
19. Those organs which have the same basic structure but different functions are called
(a) Vestigial organs
(b) Analogous organs
(c) Homologous organs
(d) None of these
20. Those organs which have different basic structure but have similar appearance and perform similar functions are called
(a) Analogous organs
(b) Homologous organs
(c) Vestigial organs
(d) None of these
21. The remaps (or impressions) of dead animals or plant? that lived in the remote past are known as
(a) extinct species
(c) naturally selected species
(d) none of the above
22. The process by which new species develop from the existing species is known as
(b) Natural selection
(c) Artificial selection
23. Which of the following is an example of genetic variation?
(a) One person has a scar, but his friend does not.
(b) One person is older than another.
(c) Reeta eats meat, but her sister Geeta is a vegetarian.
(d) Two children have different eye colours.
24. Differences between organisms in a species are described as variation. Which of the following would you describe as continuous variation?
(a) Hair colour
(b) Eye colour
25. The more characteristics two species have in common :
(a) More closely they are related and more recently they had a common ancestors.
(b) More distantly they are related and more recently they have common ancestors.
(c) More closely they are related and more distantly they have common ancestors.
(d) More distantly they are related and more distantly they have common ancestors.
Heredity And Evolution Class 10 MCQ Pdf Question 26. To study the natural phenomenon of inheritance, Mendel selected the pea plants. Which of the following properties were suitable for their studies?
(i) Plants would easily self pollinate or cross-pollinate in nature.
(ii) Plants were easily grown in garden soil with a considerably shorter generation time.
(iii) Pea plants do not require the true-breeding for hybridisation experiments.
(iv) Many parts of the plant such as pod, seed, flower, cotyledons showed distinct phenotypes.
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii).
(b) (ii) and (iv).
(c) (i) and (ii).
(d) (ii), (iii) and (iv).
27. What is the difference between genetic drift and change due to natural selection?
(a) Genetic drift does not require the presence of variation.
(b) Genetic drift never occurs in nature, natural selection does.
(c) Genetic drift does not involve competition between members of a species.
(d) There is no difference.
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 28. Which concept was not included in Charles Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection?
(a) Struggle for existence
(b) Punctuated equilibrium
(c) Survival of the fittest
(d) Overproduction of offspring.
29. Natural selection is called ‘survival of the fittest’. Which of the following statements best describes an organism?
(a) How strong it is compared to other individuals of the same species.
(b) How much food and resources it is able to gather for its offspring.
(c) The ability to adapt to the environment in the niche it occupies.
(d) The number of fertiie offspring it has.
30. Human offspring’s sex is determined
(а) through father’s sex chromosomes.
(b) through mother’s sex chromosomes.
(c) by hormones.
(d) by enzymes.
Heredity And Evolution MCQ Question 31. Wild cabbage has evolved into new varieties like cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower by
(a) genetic drift
(b) natural selection
(c) reproductive isolation
(d) artificial selection
32. The fossil remains of Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between
(a) reptiles and mammals
(b) reptiles and bird
(c) fish and amphibian
(d) amphibian and reptile
33. The maleness of a child is determined by [NCERT Exemplar Problems]
(a) the X chromosome in the zygote
(b) the Y chromosome in zygote
(c) the cytoplasm of germ cell which determines the sex
(d) sex is determined by chance
34. Some dinosaurs had feathers although they could not fly but birds have feathers that help them to fly. In the context of evolution this means that [NCERT Exemplar Problems]
(a) reptiles have evolved from birds
(b) there is no evolutionary connection between reptiles and birds
(c) feathers are homologous structures in both the organisms
(d) birds have evolved from reptiles.
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution Direction (Q35 to Q39): In the following Questions, the Assertion and Reason have been put forward. Read the statements carefully and choose the correct alternative from the following:
(a) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) The Assertion and the Reason are correct but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true but the Reason is false.
(d) The statement of the Assertion is false but the Reason is true.
35. Assertion: When pure breed tall plants are crossed with pure breed short plants, all the plants in F1 progeny are tall. When the tall plants of F1 progeny are crossed, short plants re-appear in F2 progeny.
Reason: Traits are independently inherited.
36. Assertion: Variation is high in sexually reproducing organisms compared to asexually reproducing organisms.
Reason: Inaccuracies during DN A copying give rise to variation.
Answer: (b) The Assertion and the Reason are correct but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
Heredity And Evolution MCQ Question 37. Assertion: Acquired trait cannot be passed on from one generation to next generation.
Reason: Inaccuracy during DNA copying of acquired trait is minimum.
Answer: (c) Assertion is true but the Reason is false.
38. Assertion: Human, frog and bird have a common ancestor.
Reason: Limbs of human, bird and frog are homologous.
Answer: (a) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
39. Assertion: Speciation is the reproductive isolation amongst once interbreeding population.
Reason: Genetic drift, Natural selection and Severe DNA change can cause speciation.
Answer: (a) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
40. The number of paift(s) of sex chromosomes in the zygote of humans is ____________ .
41. The theory of evolution of species by natural selection was given by ____________ .
42. Chromosomes are thread like structures in the nucleus of a cell formed of DNA which carriers the ____________ .
43. ____________ genes are those which decide the appearance of an organism only in the presence of another identical gene.
44. ____________ is the description of genes present in an organism.
45. Genes always work in ____________ .
46. The cut tail of a mice is an ____________ trait.
47. Involution led to the tormation or a new ____________ .
48. ____________ was the British scientist who proposed that life must have developed
Answer: J.B.S Haldane
49. Acquired variations in somatic traits are not passed from generation to generation. [True/False]
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 50. Human height is a trait which shows variations. [True/False]
51. Variation decreases the chances of survival of an organism in a changing environment. [True/False]
52. Genes controls the development of inherited characterstics such as hair colour, skin colour, etc. [True/False]
53. The theory of origin of life on earth proposed by haldane was confirmed by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C Urey. [True/False]
Direction: Match Column I with Column II.
|Column I||Column II|
|(i) Variation||(A) Reproductive isolation among once inter-breeding population.|
|(ii) Heredity||(B) Difference in individuals of a species.|
|(iii) Evolution||(C) Gradual changes to give rise to new species.|
|(iv) Speciation||(D) Transmission of traits from parents to offsprings.|
55. Define variation. [DoE]
Answer: Variation is defined as the differences in the characters or traits among the individuals of a species.
56. All the variations in a species do not have equal chances of survival. Why? [Foreign 2014]
All the variations do not have equal chances of survival as some variations might not be beneficial and would ultimately be eliminated.
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 57. Why variations are more in human beings?
Answer: Because human being reproduce sexually and variation are more in sexually reproducing organisms.
58. Name two human traits which show variation. [DoE]
(i) Colours of eye
59. What is a gene? [HOTS, DoE]
Gene is the unit of inheritance. It is the part of a chromosome which controls the appearance of a set of hereditary characters.
60. Name the branch of science that deals with heredity and variation. [DoE]
61. Name the genetic material that is responsible for inheritance of traits [Foreign 2013]
62. Where are genes located? [DoE]
Answer: Genes are located on DNA present in chromosomes.
63. Who is the father of Genetics? [DoE]
Answer: Gregor Johann Mendel is the father of genetics.
64. Define genetic drift.
Answer: The change in the frequency of certain genes in a population over generations.
65. What is DNA? [Delhi 2016]
Answer: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a molecule which carry the hereditary characters or traits in a coded form from one generation to the next in all the organisms.
66. No two individuals are absolutely alike in a population. Why? [DoE]
Answer: It is because of the variations which take place during DNA copying.
67. Why do mice whose tails were surgically removed just after birth for generations, continue to produce mice with tails? [Foreign 2014]
Answer: Because cutting of tail is an acquired trait and is not inherited.
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 68. What is monohybrid cross? [DoE]
Answer: The cross between two individuals with one pair of contrasting characters is called monohybrid cross.
69. Why is the progeny always tall when a tall pea plant is crossed with a short pea plant? [Foreign 2014]
Answer: Some genes are dominant and others are recessive. Tallness is a dominant trait and hence the progeny is always tall when crossed with a short plant.
70. A Mendelian experiment consisted of breeding pea plants bearing violet flowers with pea plants bearing white flowers. What will be the result in F1 progeny? [CBSE 2018]
Answer: All plants in Fj generation will bear violet flowers.
71. Write the scientific name of men and garden pea. [DoE]
Answer: Men- Homo sapiens Garden pea- Pisum sativum
72. Where did life originate on earth?
Answer: Life originated in the sea water.
73. Name the scientist who said life originated from inanimate matter.
Answer J.R.S. Haldane.
74. Name any two organisms which are now extinct and are studied from their fossils.
Answer: Ammonite, trilobite, knightia and Rajasaurus. (any two)
75. Give as example where sex determination is regulated hy invironmental factors.
Answer: In snail, sex is determined by environmental factors such as temperature.
76. What is Heredity?
Answer: It refers to the transmission of characters or traits from the parent to their offspring.
77. What determines the sex of a child?
Answer: Whether a child inherits X chromosome or Y chromosome from father determines the sex of the child.
78. What is evolution?
Answer: Formation of new species due to gradual change over a long period of time.
79. What do you mean by speciation?
Answer: Evolution of reproductive isolation among once interbreeding population.
80. How can you determine evolutionary relationship?
Answer: By comparing DNA of different species.
80. Both birds and bat have wings. What name is given to this relationship?
Answer: Analogous organs.
NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 82. What do you call the organs having same design but different function?
Answer: Homologous organs.
83. Will geographical isolation be a major factor in speciation of sexually reproducing animals? How?
Answer: Yes, because it interrupts the flow of genes between their isolated populations through the gametes.
84. The human hand, cat paw and the horse foot, when studied in detail show the same structure of bones and point towards a common origin.
(i) What do you conclude from this?
(ii) What is the term given to such structures? [HOTS]
(i) In course of evolutions they have been modified to perform different functions.
(ii) Homologous organs.
85. Name the scientist who proposed the theory of evolution.
Answer: Charles Darwin.
86. Give one characteristic to show that birds are closely related to dinosaurs.
Presence of feathers on birds.
87. Is it necessary that homologous structures always have a common ancestor?
Answer: Yes, it is necessary that homologous structures always have a common ancestor in order to carry out the different activities. Otherwise there cannot be any similarity in basic plan, internal structure, development or origin.
88. Name five varieties of vegetables which have been produced from ‘wild cabbage’ by the process of artificial selection. [DoE]
Answer: Vegetables like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi and kale are formed from artificial selection.
89. Name the ancestor of brocoli, kale and cabbage.
Answer: Wild cabbage.
90. Name the place where human species have genetic roots.
91. Explain the term analogous with examples.
Answer: Analogous organs are those organs which have different basic structural designs and developmental origins but have similar appearance and perform similar functions.
Examples: Wings of an insect and wings of a bat.
Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 92. Explain the term homologous with examples.
Answer: Homologous organs are those organs which have the same basic structural design and developmental origin but have different functions and appearance.
Examples: Forelimbs of frog and forelimbs of human.
Fill in the Blanks
1. The study of the pattern of chromosomes from parents to the offspring is called ……….. .
2. The wings of a bird and mosquito are ……….. organs.
3. In Mendel’s experiment, the trait which did not appear in the F1 generation was said to be …………. .
4. The number of X chromosomes in a human ovum is ……….. .
5. ……….. proposed the “Theory of Natural Selection”.
6. If a sperm carrying ‘X’ chromosome fertilises an ovum, then the child bom will be a ……….. .
7. The process by which new species develop from the existing species is known as ……….. .
8. Transitional fossils like ……….. is a connecting link between reptiles and birds.
5. Charles Darwin